English by Halifax N. English by Episcopal Church. Report of Mr. William Eppes Report of Mr. Wood's Visit to the Choctaw and Cherokee Missions. Sandford December Term, English by Howard, Benjamin C. English by Sanford, John F. English by United States. Kennedy English by United States. Davis, Esq. English by Davis, Charles G. Board of Trade. Neptune, English by Low, A. Albert Peter A report on the feasibility and advisability of some policy to inaugurate a system of rifle practice throughout the public schools of the country English by Critchfield, Ammon B.
A report on the feasibility and advisability of some policy to inaugurate a system of rifle practice throughout the public schools of the country English by National Board for the Promotion of Rifle Practice A report on the feasibility and advisability of some policy to inaugurate a system of rifle practice throughout the public schools of the country English by Wingate, George Wood Report on the Plans of the Various Railways before the Examiners of the House of Commons, , so far as relates to the Parish of Kensington English by Broadbridge, James Report on the Radiolaria Collected by H.
Challenger During the Years , Vol. Returned Prisoners. English by Gooch, Daniel W. English by Wade, B. Including the trials of Tawell, W. Palmer, Dove, Madeline Smith, Dr. Pritchard, Smethurst, and Dr. Lamson, with chemical introduction and notes on the poisons used English by Browne, G.
Lamson, with chemical introduction and notes on the poisons used English by Stewart, C. Charles G. Alberta M. John Berry Representative English Comedies, v. An essay on gleets. Charles Frederick Researches on curves of the second order Also on cones and spherical conics treated analytically, in which the tangencies of Apollonius are investigated, and general geometrical constructions deduced from analysis; also several of the geometrical conclusions of M.
John English by Smith, F. Occasional Papers No. The New Greek Text. The New English Version. Westcott and Hort's New Textual Theory. G, Dr. George Sigerson, and Dr. And Reason? English by Carroll, Lewis Rhyme? English by Frost, A. Arthur Burdett Rhyme? Rhymes Old and New : collected by M. Wright English by Wright, M. I Italian by Elia, Augusto Ricordi di un garibaldino dal al Riding Recollections, 5th ed.
English by Giberne, Edgar Riding Recollections, 5th ed. English by Whyte-Melville, G. Rimrock Trail English by Dunn, J. Riven Bonds. River and Canal Engineering, the characteristics of open flowing streams, and the principles and methods to be followed in dealing with them. English by Bellasis, E. Harry C. The Thames, from Source to Sea. Frank B. Martin E. English by James, G. Charles Wendell Robert E. Newell Convers Robin Hood A collection of all the ancient poems, songs, and ballads, now extant, relative to that celebrated English outlaw.
To which are prefixed historical anecdotes of his life. English by Bewick, Thomas Robin Hood A collection of all the ancient poems, songs, and ballads, now extant, relative to that celebrated English outlaw. English by Buckman, Edwin Robin Hood A collection of all the ancient poems, songs, and ballads, now extant, relative to that celebrated English outlaw. English by Ritson, Joseph Robin Hood A collection of all the ancient poems, songs, and ballads, now extant, relative to that celebrated English outlaw.
English by Latham, T. Sir George Grey, K. English by Jameson, Mrs. English by Hampson, P. The Romance of the Red Triangle The story of the coming of the red triangle and the service rendered by the Y. German by M. The Rose of Old St. Louis English by Castaigne, J. Johnson The Rose of Old St. Louis English by Relyea, C. Charles M. Romane aus dem dritten Jahrtausend.
Ioan Al. Arthur C. In that the ear is equally sensible of the pethe article Consonant, the natural division culiarities, whether the closure precedes of words is shown to cease with syllables: the continued sound or follows it; that is they are one sound, and the division into to say, whether the syllables pronounced vowels and consonants, ingenious and use- are ap, at, ak, or pa, ta, ka.
The modififul as it is, does not, in fact, exist to the cations of which we are now speaking degree which we usually take for granted, appear, then, not to be really sounds, but from the circumstance of considering only manners of beginning and ending themn as totally distinct from early child- sounds; and it is because they can thus hood. Consonants are, generally speak- be perceived only in connexion with voing, only the beginning or end of vowels; cal sounds, that they are called consoi. Ar opened to produce a vowel sound, and nott's work, for further remarks on the closed to conclude the vowel sounds; and pronunciation of the various vowels and this mode of opening or closing gives rise consonants, and add here only his table to that which we call a consonant.
The of articulations, in which, if we consider circumstance that consonants cannot be the perpendicular line on the left as the pronounced without the aid of vowels, opening of the mouth, and the line on the shows, that the strict division into vowels right as the back part of the mouth, the and consonants is one which nature has four divisions indicate the places where not made.
Arnott says p. P T K Mute. B D L G Semi-mute. M N ng on Semi-vowel or nasal. F th S sh ch H Aspirate. V th Z J gh Vocal aspirate. The effect of the sexual functions on the, cal persons it indicates an approach voice is well known; but the mode in ing fit. A good musical voice plained. This influence is observable depends chiefly upon the soundness and even in birds, which delight us with their power of the organs of utterance and of amorous melodies at: the season of pair- hearing, and the necessary musial dispoing; in woman, whose voice acquires; sition, and is distinguished: by clearness its metallic tone and its fulness at the age of intonation, ease, strength, duration, of puberty; and particularly in man, equality, harmoniousness and fulness of who does not possess, till that period, the- the sounds; whilst natural defects or dis"voices" peculiar to him, the bass or ten- eases in those organs for instance, narrowor, and in whom the change of voice, as ness of the chest, weak lungs give rise to every one knows, is prevented by previ- imperfections inthe voice.
Asweakness of ous emasculation. But also many other lungs necessarily affects the voice, so frecauses, affecting especially the nervous quent singing developes and strengthens system, produce considerable changes inm the lungs, which are strong enough to the voice, which afford important symp- support:it; and instruction in singing is, toms in diseases. Thus it may be want- therefore, in a medical respect, of great ing altogether in a diseased state this is importance. The rarity of consumption called aphonia , or it may be changed in most parts of Germany, compared to morbidly paraphonia, cacophonia.
In other countries, is ascribed by some, in a the latter case, it is either too strong or great measure, to the general instruction too Weak, too deep vox clangosa, if it is and frequent practice in singing. Pracat the same time too strong, and raucitas tice in singing for several generations gravis, if it is at the same time too weak , must undoubtedly have a decided influor too high oxryphomia, which again is di- ence in giving strength to the lungs, vided into vox cucuriens or rudens, which which may also be much promoted by is at the same: time too strong, and rauci- gymnastic exercises that expand the chest.
A fine voice requires a long, regular and Most of these affections appear as symp- strong breath. Some faults in singtoms, but are seldom considered as a ing, however, originate from a bad use of primary disease. A voice which has by the true character of the disease. The nature the requisite properties, acquires entire loss of voice originates from cramp, compass and strength, correctness and weakness or paralysis. If it is caused by pliability, by exercise. Thorough methodparalysis, it is almost always a fatal symp- ical practice in singing should not, in most tom.
If it is connected with an excitable cases, be begun before the ninth or tenth constitution, itilndicatesviolentcongestions year, though the ear ought to be early and approaching apoplexy; occurringafter exercised. The variety of voices is as delivery, it indieates convulsions; in the great as that of individuals. In respect croup, sffocation and mortification. An to depth and height, there are four prinunnaturally strong voice is very common cipal classes of voices: discant, alto, tenor in madness.
The vox clangosa, sounding and bass. Discant, or soprano, moreover, as if the person was speaking in an empty is distinguished from lower, or mezzo pot, is, in dangerous diseases, a very seri- soprano, tenor from counter tenor, and ous Symptom. The hoarseness, in which between tenor and bass comes the proper the voice is too deep, indicates great dan- baritono.
A good bass voice generally ger in bilious fever, scarlatina, consump- extends from F or G, below G gamut, tion, and dropsy of the chest. It is not a to C or D, above the bass-clef note; the symptom of disease when caused merely baritono from about G gamut to F, above by the arrival of the age of' puberty, by the bass-clef note; the tenor from C, catarrh, or by dust which has been in- above G gamut, to G, the treble-clef note, spired. The vox cucuriens, seu rudens, seu or A above it; the counter-tenor from E pipiens sounding similar to the crowing or F, above G gamut, to B or C, above of a cock, or the braying of an ass is the treble-clef note; the mezzo soprano pathognornic in the hooping cough and from A or B, above the bass-clef note, to croup, and is also sometimes found in E or F, above the treble-clef note; and dropsy in the head and small-pox, and the soprano from C, above the bass-clef is a bad symptom.
The raucitas acuta note, to A, B or C, in alt, and something originates partly from the same causes higher. Female voices are, by nature, as the raucitas gravis. With hysteri- treble and alto; those of boys, even if. When the boy arrives at allusions. See Essential Oils. Advo- stances are capable of being volatilized, catorum ; ina wider sense, all that part and that we should be able to dissolve of Germany which formerly belonged to.
The volcano and the ent princes and counts. It earthquake might, perhaps, with no imcomprised the Saxon circle of Voigtland, propriety, have been treated of together, the bailiwic ofWeida and Ziegenrfick, in since both are undoubtedly effects of the the grand duchy of gaxe-Weimar, the same subterranean process; but we have territories of the princes and counts of preferred to devote to each a separate arReuss, the district of lIof, now included ticle, as the phenomena on the earth's in the Bavarian circle ofthe Upper Maine, surface, to which they give rise, are con andte Saxe-Altenburg bailiwic of'Ron- siderably different.
The present article neburg, From the eleventh century there will, however, embrace several particu were imperial officers, in'the above de- lars relating to earthquakes, which were scribed. There are certhe emperor. In a narrower sense, the tain regions to which volcanic eruptions, term is applied particularly to a circle of and the movements of great earthquakes, Saxony, consisting ofa part ofthe former are confined: over the whole of vast Voigtland. It has , inhabitants on tracts active volcanic vents are distributed square mies, is also called thp at intervals, and most commonly arranged circle of Neustadt.
The chieftown is in alinear direction. Throughout the inPlauen. It contains some mountainous termediate spaces there is abundant eviand woody districts, and in isome parts is dence that the subterranean fire is continwell adapted.
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His mineral matters which are discharged by agreeable manners and conversation in- volcanoes during eruptiogs. Of these troduced him to good company; and he great regions, that of the Andes is one ywas a visitor at the Hotel de Rambouillet, of the best'defined. Commencing southand was also well received at court, and ward, at least in Chile, at the forty-sixth by Gaston, dpule of Orleans, who made degree of south latitude, it proceeds northhim his master of the ceremonies.
In ward tothe t wenty-seventh degree', form , he was admitted into the French ing an uninterrupted line of volcanoes. Villarica, 6ne of the some verses in such pure and natural principal, continues burning without inSpanish, that every body ascribed them termission, and' is so high, that it may be to Lope de Vega. He also visited Rome distinguished at the distance' of miles. Voiture A year never p'ases in this province with' was one of the first persons in France dis- out some sliglit socks of earthquakes; tinguished by the title of bel esprit.
He and about once in a century, or oftener wrote verses in French, Spanish and Ital- tremendous convulsions occur, by which ian. The former are occasionally easy and the land has been shaken from one exsprightly, but have much strained wit and tremity to the other, and continuous tracts, affected sentiment. His letters place him together with the bed of the Pacific, have high in the class of epistolary writers, been raised permanently from one to though they often degenerate into affec- twenty feet above their former level.
Hot springs are numerous in this district, ing Caribbean sea must be considered as and mineral waters of various kinds. Pursuing ourcourse northward, we find On the north lies tile island of Jamaica, in Peru only one active volcano as yet which, with a tract of the contiguous sea, known; but the province is so subject to has often experienced tremendous shocks; earthquakes, that scarcely a week passes and these are frequent along a line exwithout a shock; and many of these have tending from Jamaica to St.
Domingo been so violent as to create great changes and Porto Rico. On the south of the of the surface. Farther north, we find, in same basin, the shores and mountains of the middle of Quito, where the Andes Colomlbia are perpetually convulsed On attain their greatest elevation, Tungura- the west is the volcanic chain of Guatigua, Cotopaxi, Antisana and Pichincha, mnala and Mexico, and on the east, the the three former of which not unfre- West Indian isles, where, in St. Vincent's quently emit flames. From the first of and Guadaloupe, are active vents. Thus it these, a deluge of mud descended in will be seen that volcanoes and earth, and filled valleys, feet wide, to quakes occur, uninterruptedly, from Chile the depth of feet, forming barriers, to the north of Mexico; and it seems whereby rivers were dammed up, and probable, that they will hereafter be found lakes occasioned.
Earthquakes have, in to extend, at least, from cape Horn to the same province, caused great revolu- California. In regard to the eastern limtions in the physical features of the sur- its of the region, they lie deep beneath face. There are three volcanoes farther the waves of the Pacific, and must therenorth, in the province of Pasto, and three fore continue unknown to us.
On the others in that of Popayan. In the prov- west, they do not appear, except where inces of Guatimala and Nicaragua, which they include the West Indian islands, to lie between the isthmus of Panama and be prolonged to a great distance; for there Mexico, there are no less than twenty-one seem to be no indications of volcanic disactive volcanoes. This great volcanic turbances in Guiana, Brazil and Buenos chain, after having pursued its course for Ayres. On an equal, if not a still grandseveral thousand miles from south to er scale, is another continuous line of volnorth, turns off in a side direction in canic action, which commences on the Mexico, andis prolonged in a great plateau, north, with the Aleutian isles in Russian between the eighteenth and twenty-second America, and extends first in an easterly degrees of north latitude.
The plateau direction for nearly two hundred miles, in question owes its present form to the and southward, without interruption, circumstance of an ancient system of thr:oughout a space of between sixty and valleys, in a chain of primary mountains, seventy degrees of latitude, to the Moluchaving been filled up, to the depth of ma- cas, and then branches off in different ny thousand feet, with various volcanic directions both towards the east and products.
Five active volcanoes traverse north-west. The northern extremity of Mexico from west to east; viz. Tuxtla, this volcanic region is the peninsula of Orizaba, Popocatepetl, Jorullo and Coli- Alaska, in about the fifty-fifth degree of ma. Jorullo, which is in the centre of latitude. Thence the line is continued, the great plateau, is no less than forty through the Aleutian or Fox islands, to leagues fiom the ocean, which shows that Kamtschatka, in the southern extremity the proximity of the sea is not a necessa- of which there are seven active volcary condition, although certainly a very noes, which, in some eruptions, have general characteristic, of the position of scattered ashes to immense distances.
The extraordinary The Kurile chain of isles constitutes the eruption of this mountain in will prolongation of the range in a southern be described in the sequel. To the north direction; the line is then continued to of Mexico there are three, or, according to the south-west in the great island of Jesso, some, five volcanoes, in the peninsula of where there are active vents. Between California. In the year , violent the Japanese and Philippine islands, the earthquakes convulsed the valley of the communication is preserved by several Mississippi at New Madrid, for the space small insular vents.
The line is then f three hundred miles in length. As prolonged through Sanguir, and t'ne this happened exactly at the same time as north-eastern extremity of Celebes, to the the great earthquake of Caraccas, it is Moluccas.
Here a great transverse line prrobable that these two points are parts may be said to run from east to west. On of one continuous volcanic region; for the west, it passes through the whole of he whole circumference of the interven- Java, where there are thirty-eight large. In the volcanoes leged existence of burning volcanoes in of Sumatra, the same linear arrangement that island shall be substantiated. Reis preserved. In another direction, the specting the volcanic system of Southern volcanic range is prolonged through Bor- Europe, it may be observed, that there is neo, Celebes, Banda, New Guinea; and a central tract, where the greatest earthfarther eastward in New Britain, New quakes prevail, in which rocks are shatIreland, and various parts of the Polyne- tered and cities laid in ruins.
On each sian archipelago. The Pacific ocean, in- side of this line of greatest commotion, deed, seems, in equatorial latitudes, to be there are parallel bands of country where one vast theatre of igneous action; and its the shocks are less violent. At a still innumerable archipelagoes, such as the greater distance, as in Northern Italy, New Hebrides, Friendly islands, and there are spaces where the.
Beyond of coralline limestones or volcanic rocks, these limits, again, all countries are liable with active vents here and there inter- to slight tremors at distant intervals of spersed. In the old world, the volcanic time, when some great crisis of subterregion extends from east to west fur the ranean movement agitates an adjoining distance of about miles, from the Cas- volcanic region; but these may be conpiran sea to the Azores, including within sidered as mere vibrations, propagated its limits the greater part of the Medi- mechanically through the external crust terranean and its most prominent penin- of the globe, as sounds travel almost sulas.
From south to north, it reaches to indefinite distances through the air. Its western and arrangement of their lavas and ejectlimits are the ocean; but it is impossible ed matter. From the first colonization to determine how far it may be prolonged of Southern Italy by the Greeks, Vesuin that direction; neither can we assign vius afforded no other indication of its with precision its extreme eastern limit, volcanic character than such as the natsince the country beyond the Caspian and uralist might infer from the analogy of its sea of Aral is scarcely known.
The structure to other volcanoes. These were southern boundaries of the region include recognised by Strabo. The ancient cone the most northern parts of Africa, and was of a very regular form, terminating, part of the desert of Arabia. XVe may not, as at present, in two peaks, but with a trace, through the whole of the area fiattish summit, where the remains of an comprehended within these extensive ancient crater, nearly filled up, had left a limits, numerous points of volcanic erup- slight depression, covered in its interior tions, hot springs, gaseous emanations, and by wild vines, and with a sterile plain at other signs of igneous agency; while the bottom.
On the exterior, the sides few tracts of any extent have been en- of the mountains were covered with fertirely exempt from earthquakes through- tile fields, richly cultivated, and at its out the last years. Besides the con- base were the populous cities of Hercutinuous spaces of subterranean disturb- laneum and Pompeii. But the scene of ance, of which the outline has been repose was at length doomed to cease, given above, there are other disconnected and the volcanic fire was recalled to the volcanic groups, of which the geograph- main channel, which, at some former, unical extent is, as yet, imperfectly known.
The first symptom of the revival gion as the volcano in Jan Mayen's island. The in its vicinity. The day. The next eruption occurred in alder Pliny, who commanded the Roman ; between which era and , there fleet, was then stationed at Misenum; was only one other in , and that a and, in his anxiety to obtain a near view slight one. During this interval, a memof the phenomena, he -lost his life, being orable event occurred in the Phlegreean suffocated with sulphureous vapors.
His fields-the sudden formation of a new nephew, the younger Pliny, remained at mountain in Frequent earthquakes Misenum, and has given us, in his Let- for two years preceding disturbed the ters, a lively description of the awful neighborhood of Pozzuoli; but it was nct scene. A dense column of vapor was until the twenty-seventh and twentyfirst seen rising vertically from Vesuvius, eighth of September, , that they beand then spreading itself out laterally, so came alarming, when not less than twenthat its upper portion resembled the ty shocks were experienced in twenty-four head, and its lower, the trunk of the hours.
At length, on the night of the pine, which characterizes the Italian twenty-ninth, two hours after sunset, a landscape. This black cloud was pierced, gulf opened between the little town of occasionally, by flashes of fire as vivid as Tripergola, which once existed on the lightning, succeeded by darkness more site of the Monte Nuovo, and the baths in profound than night. Ashes fell even its suburbs, which were much frequented. The ground a tremendous noise, and began to disrocked, and the sea receded from the charge pumice-stones, blocks Of unmelted shores, so that many marine animals lava, and ashes mixed with water, and, were seen on the dry sand.
The appear- occasionally, flames. The ashes fell in ances'above described agree perfectly immense quantities, even at Naples. The with those witnessed in more recent erup- sea retired suddenly for two hundred tions, especially those of Monte Nuovo, yards, and a portion of its'bed was left dry; in , and of Vesuvius, in In and the whole coast from Monte Nuovo all times and countries, indeed, there is a to beyond Pozzuoli was upraised to the striking uniformity in the volcanic phe- height of many feet above the bed of the nomena;; but'it is most singular that Mediterranean, and has ever since rePliny, although giving a circumstantial mained permanently elevated.
On the detail of so many physical facts, and en- third'of October, the eruption ceased, so lartging upon the manner of his uncle's that the hill Monte Nuovo, which is death, and the ashes which fell when'he feet above the'level of the bay, and a mile was at Stabice, makes no'allusion what- and a half in circumference at its base, ever to the sudden overwhelming of two and which was chiefly thrown iup in a large and populous cities, Herculaneum day and a night, was accessible.
The and Pompeii. Tacitus, the friend depth of its crater is feet fiom the and contemporary of Pliny, when ad- summit of the hill, so that its bottom is verting,-in general terms, to the convul- only nineteen feet above the level of the sion, says mrrerely, that " cities were swal- sea. For nearly a century after the birth lowed up or buried" haustca aut obrutce of Monte Nuovo, Vesuvius still continuurbes. It does not appear ed in a state of tranquillity.
Bracini, who that, in the year 79, any lava flowed from visited Vesuvius not long before the erupVesuvius: the ejected substances appear tion of , gives the following descripto have consisted entirely of sand and tion of its interior. The crater was five fragments of older lava. In , the miles in circumference, and about one first eruption of flowing lava occurred. During part,of , In the woody parts, wild boars frequently earthquakes had succeeded one another harbored.
But at length these forests with fearful rapidity; and they terminated and grassy plains were suddenly conat last! In Decem-:Arso, not far'from the town of'Ischia. These with impalpable volcanic dust, rolled vapors are condensed in the cold atmosalong loose ashes, acquiring such consist- phere surrounding the high volcanic ency as to deserve the appellation of peak; and heavy rains are caused someaqueous lava. A brief period of repose times even in countries where, under ensued, which lasted only until the year other circumstances, such a phenomenon , from which time to the present, is entirely unknown.
The floods thus there has been a constant series of erup- occasioned sweep along impalpable dust tions, with rarely an interval of rest ex- and light scoriae, till a current of mlud is ceeding ten years. The modern lavas produced, which is often more dreaded of Vesuvius are characterized by a large than an igneous stream, from the greater proportion of augite.
When they are velocity with which it moves. Etna, which rises, near the sea, in from many of the trap-rocks. See Trap. The base of the cone is earthy base. Thlese porphyritic lavas are eighty-seven miles.. Etna appears to 9often extremely compact. In the lava have been in activity from the earliest currents of central France those of Vive- times of tradition. A great-eruption there is:a foundation of regular and ver- occurred in the year The lava, after tical columns, in that part of the current having overflowed fourteen towns and.
Au- length, at the walls of Catania. These had gite, leucite,. It is an extraordi- rose to the top of the rampart, which was nary fact, that, in an area of three square sixty feet in height, and then fell. The wall, however, was. Many of these afterwards by excavations made in the are peculiar to this locality. A curling over the top of the rampart, as. This great by thlewinds and scattered over the sur- current had performed a course of fifteen rounding. These horizontal deposits of approach of the threatening torrent,.
They broke open one of the solid peperinos and volcanic conglomerates. Besides the ejections which fall on the'Belpasso, and immediately forth issued a cone, and that much greater mass which rivulet of melted matter, which took th. Paterno; but the inhabitants sea, there is a third portion, often of no in- of that town, being alarmed'for their considerable thickness, composed of allu- safety, took up arms,.
In , the great small distances from the volcano. Ihn- crater testified, by its violent detonations,. A violent shock was then felt, and compute that there happen on the earth a stream broke out from the side of the about eruptions in the course of a cone, at no great distance from its apex. However inconber of six, broke out in succession, still siderable, therefore, may be the superficial lower down the mountain, but all in the rocks, which the operations of fire prosame straight line. In , three large duce on the surface, we must suppose mouths opened very near those which the subterranean changes now constantly were formed in the eruptions of , in progress to be on the grandest scale.
A few minutes afterwards, another of fire in the nether regions. One of the mouth opened below, from which flames earliest hypotheses to account for volcanic and smoke issued; and finally, a fifth, eruptions is that which attributes them to lower still, whence a torrent of lava the eructations of a perpetual central fire, flowed, which spread itself, with great to which, however, the nature of the lava, velocity, over the valley Del Bove.
This the method of its projection, and, above stream flowed two miles in the first twen- all the known laws of the communication ty-four hours, and nearly as far in the of heat, are insurmountably opposed. The succeeding day and night. As the last sudden evolution of steam has also freexample of modern volcanic eruptions, quently been resorted to. They have also we shall mention that of Jorullo, in Mex- been referred to the ignition of beds of ico, in The plain, which was the coal; and Werner supposed that the fire si'e of the eruption, is thirty-six leagues thus produced fused the circumjacent from the sea, and, at the time of the rocks, and formed lava.
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Others have calleruption, was occupied by fertile fields of ed sulphur, pyrites, petroleum and bitusugar-cane and indigo. In the month men to their aid, but have sought in vain of June, hollow sounds, of an alarming for the necessary supply of oxygen, withnature, were heard, and earthquakes sue- out which these combustibles could not ceeded each other for two months, until, perform their required part; and, indeed, in September, flames issued from the if we grant an unlimited supply of that ground, and fragments of burning rocks element, the projectile force-the vaporwere thrown to prodigious heights.
Six still remains to be accounted for. Others volcanic cones, composed of scorike and have imagined a great depot of electric fragmentary lava were formed on the line matter, pent up in certain submarine and of a chasm which ran in the direction subterranean caverns, and occasionally from north-north-eastto south-south-west.
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The most plauheight; and Jorullo, the central one, was sible theory of volcanoes is that suggested elevated feet above the level of the by sir H. Davy, soon after he had dissea. A subsequent eruption of Jorullo covered the nature of the earthy and happened in , accompanied by an alkaline bodies. Indeed, it enables us, in earthquake. The city of Guanaxuato, most cases, upon just principles of sound distant about miles firom Jorullo, was analogy, to explain their origin; for lava covered with ashes, to the depth of six consists of earthy and alkaline bodies, inches, from this eruption.
Now, duction of the phenomena that precede, if we consider the active volcanoes of accompany and follow the eruption of Europe to constitute about a fortieth part volcanoes: they may be referred to, as of those already known on the globe, and accounting for the earthquakes, the excalculate that, one with another, they are plosions and the gaseous products; and. In , he published his dethe requisites. How or where these istical] work, entitled Les Ruines, ou JRibodies exist, at what depths, in what ditations sur les Rlvolutions des Empires.
Pozzo di Borgo to Corsica, where he found connected with volcanoes. He made attempts to establish of the sea; and in the vicinity of the burn- in that island the cultivation of the sugaring mountains of the Cordilleras there are cane, indigo, and other tropical plants; lakes; and it has been observed, that but he was unsuccessful. Returning to springs and lakes suddenly dry up pre- Paris, he suffered persecution under the vious to the active eruption of a volcano. See Wolga.
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In November, sian empire, between the governments , he was appointed professor of hisof Grodno and Podolia; square miles, tory at the normal school; and the course 29,; population, about 1,, While of lectures on the philosophy of history Poland was independent, Volhynia form- which he delivered, and which was pubed a province of that kingdom, whll lished and translated into English, added bordered with the Ukraine on the sout'f- considerably to his reputation.
In , east. The soil is fertile, producing wheat he made a voyage to the U. States of and rye, and its pasture lands are exten- America; and he would probably have sive; but a great part of the surface is settled in America, had not the prospect forest. From its frontier situation, it has of a war with France induced him to often been exposed to the evils of invasion. After Since , it has been in the possession the revolution which elevated Bonaparte of Russia. Volhynia was in insurrection to the consulship, he was nominated a in , but shared the fate of Poland, senator; and it is said the office of second when that unfortunate country was again consul was designed for him, but his potrampled under foot by the victorious litical opinions prevented the appointbarbarians.
See Poland, and Russia. See Will. After in Brittany, in Inspired, at an the restoration, Volney, by a decree of the early age, with a desire to visit foreign fourth of June, , was designated a countries in search of knowledge, he no member of the chamber of peers, where sooner became master of a small patri- he remained faithful to his principles, monial estate, than he converted it into always appearing among the ardent demoney, and embarked for the Levant, fenders of the rights of the nation.
His travelled through several parts of Egypt death took place at Paris, in Beand Syria, and, after a residence for some sides the works already mentioned, he time in a Maronite convent on mount published Simplfication des Langues Libanus, for the purpose of studying the Orientales, ou. The fruits of his inquiries , 8vo. His connected with some of the most eminent Euvr'es completes, with his Life, appeared among his literary contemporaries.
On at Paris, in , in 8 vols. Having braced the cause of liberty, and frequently acquired the use of the burin, without any. Here a society of amateurs, at respectable family of Como, was born in the head of whom was Ercole Bonajuti, that place, iln , and died there in had been formed for the purpose of pro- While pursuing his studies at Cocuring engravings of Raphael's works in mo, he displayed not less inclination for the Vatican. The drawings of the the poetic art than for the severe sciences, Spanish painter La Veja, in eighty sheets, and composed a fine Latin poem upon which had been prepared by a labor of physics.
But he soon after devoted himthree years for cardinal Silvio Valenti, self entirely to physical inquiries, and and which had been bequeathed by the laid the foundation of his fame in two cardinal Luigi Valenti to the Vatican li- treatises, published in and , in brary, were made the basis of this work. In , Volta beand soon became distinguished among came rector of the gymnasium in Como, the artists connected with him. The six and professor of physics, and, in , sheets executed by him are of the high- was transferred to Pavia. Here he ocest merit. They reproduce, as far as is pos- cupied himself entirely with electrical sible in a small space, the impression of re4arches.
See Electricity. The His observations upon the bubbles which most skilful union of the burin with the arise from stagnant water, led him also to dry-point could alone have enabled him some valuable discoveries in regard to to accomplish this difficult task in a work gases. The electrical pistol, the eudiomof such extent. The publication of Ra- eter, the lamp with inflammable air, the phael's loggie and arabesques placed Vol- electrical condenser, and other inventions, pato at the head of a school of design, are among his claims to renown.
On his rephael Morghen q. In in-law of Volpato. Gavin Hamilton, the , he received the Copleian mledal companion of his Socratic suppers, at from the royal society of London, on acwhich Canova also used to be present, count of his paper upon the condenser; was nlot without influence upon the taste and, in , his electric apparatus atof the artist. Volpato died in , and tracted so much notice in France that the Canova honored the memory of his first consul made him a present of friend and benefactor by a relief, which francs.
In , the emperor Francis apThey had a republican government. Livy pointed him director of the philosophical calls them the eternal enemies of Rome. As a Their principal city was Antium, the ru- man, Volta was simple, modest and reliins of which are to be seen in the neigh- gious, a good father and citizen. Antinoborhood of cape Angio.
Corioli, from ri edited a collection of his works Opere which Coriolanus derived his surname, di Volta, Florence, , 5 vols. After having fessor Zuccala published a eulogy tpl oh srverall times endangered the Roman him Elogio di Volta in See Galvanism. Voltaire became intimate with the elder If any man ever showed the natural sov- Caumartin, who awakened in him a great ereignty of the intellect, and its superiori- admiration of Henry IV, and of Sully, ty to all earthly splendor, it was this dis- and gave him a lively idea of the court tinguished man, who, in a nation, and of Louis XIV.
His in- against the government. He remained fluence was felt throughout Europe; and in confinement a year and a half, and, in never did a man, by the force of his writ- this situation, planned a poem upon the ings, obtain such power over his nation. He likewise improved his tragedy is, Feb. His father, Francis Edipus, which was brought upon the stage Arouet, notary of the Chttelet, and finally in , and was performed forty-five treasurer of the chamber of accounts, times in one year.
Meanwhile, the poet possessed considerable property, so that had been released from prison in consehe was enabled to give his son an excel- quence of the real author of the satire lent education. Voltaire received his having disclosed himself, but had been first instruction in the Jesuits' collegp of banished from Paris. Now, however, in Louis XIV. In his third pus, he was allowed to return. His father year he was able to repeat the fables of himself was so much pleased with the repLa Fontaine, and, somewhat later, recited, resentation of this play, that he embraced from memory, a poem of Rousseau La his son with teals in his eyes, and fionr Moisade , before the celebrated Ninon de this time left him to his own inclination l'Enclos, who was so much pleased with Voltaire now fell passionately in love with the talent of the boy, that she left him a the marchioness of Villars, so that his at-, legacy of livres to purchase a library.
Jrt1nire the eldest son, and therefore assumed which was unsuccessful. It was afterthat name which has since become so fa- wards brought upon the stage, in 1. His father wished to see him a under the name of. In , he accompanied madlong to devote himself to the law. He ame de Rulpelmonde to Brussels, where wrote poetry continually, and cultivated he became acquainted with Jean Baptiste his talents in the company of men of Rousseau; but the characters of the two much accomplishment and wit, but of were so different, that their acquaintance little principle; such as Chaulieu, the terminated in a complete separation.
In marquis de la Fare, marshal Villars, the , Voltaire was engaged in completing grand prior of Vendome, the prince of the Henriade, which, about this period, apConti, and others. Here he caught the peared for the first time in London, under tone of polished society which distin- the name of the League, but without the guishes his writings, and which greatly consent of Voltaire, and in a very impercontributed to his influence. His father feet state.
In her own words . . .
The president He6nault,'and was displeased with his mode of life, and other friends, disturbed him so much by entreated the marquis of Chateauneuf, their criticisms upon this production, that French minister to Holland, to take the he threw it into the fire. H1nault snatchyoung Voltaire with him as a page. He ed it out, with these words: " Your poem consented; but Voltaire fell in love with is like your hero: notwithstanding his the daughter of madame Noyer. His father would re- imprisoned, at the age of thirty-two ceive him into favor again only on condi- years, in the Bastile.
He had offended tion of his resuming the study of the law. Voltaire cessity of pursuing this study, by offering now learned to fence, and challenged the. At tion of the pope himself Benedict XIV , the end of six months, he was released. His JMrope mired his poetical talents; but he was was the firstFrench dramawhichproduced obliged to leave the kingdom.
HEe went a strong effect without the aid of love. On to England, where his Henriade was pub- the representation of this piece, the custom lished by subscription, at the request of was introduced of calling for the appearking George I and the princess of Wales. Before this time, From this he obtained considerable emol- Voltaire had gained the favor of the court umnent. He became acquainted with by a political service. He corresponded. In ], he received , an alliance with him was considered permission to return to France, where he desirable. Voltaire was sent to Berlin, put his acquisitions into a lottery.
By and discovered the ground upon which this, as well as by other fortunate specu- Frederic had declined the advances which lations he traded under the name of Du had been made him. The alliance was;Moulin, and sent ships to Africa , he ob- concluded as soon as France had declared tained great wealth, so that, after he came herself against Austria.
Voltaire now deinto possession of the estates of his father sired, as the reward of his services, some and brother, his income amounted to marks of favor from the court, to facilitate nearly , livres, which he employed his admission to the academy, which had in a praiseworthy manner: he particular- been opposed by his numerous enemies. In , Hie was therefore invited to compose a he brought the tragedy of Brutus upon piece for the celebration of the nuptials the stage; bult, notwithstanding much of the dauphin, and wrote the Princess of merit, it did not please universally.
His Navarre. The piece was approved, if talert for dramatic poetry was even not bh the public, at least by the court; doubted; and Fontenelle and La Motte and his reward was the place of gentiladvised him not to employ his genius homme ordinaire, and historian of France. His answer As such, he planned a history of the then was the Zaire, a play, which produced existing war of It was not, howa deep and universal impression, and is ever, until that he received a place still a favorite on the French stage. In the mean time, he He afterwards attacked the pretensions of was persecuted with lampoons of all the church with such vehemence, in his kinds, so that he withdrew, with madame Lettres philosophiques, that the parliament du Chatelet, to the court of king Stanisof Paris condemned the book to be burnt; laus, at Luneville.
During this time were and an order was issued for the arrest of produced his tragedies Semiramis, Orestes, the author. He therefore passed some and Rome Save'e, the subject of which years in concealment at Cirey, near Vassi, was the conspiracy of Catiline. After the in Champagne, where he was treated death of madame du Chatelet, in , with the greatest kindness by the mistress Voltaire returned to Paris, where he conof the estate, the marchioness du Chat- tributed much to form the celebrated actor elet q. Frederic the Great had hitherto Philosophic de.
Stewton, to make his coun- vainly invited him to Potsdam; but being trymlen acquainted with the great discov- told that Frederic had called Arnaud the eries of the English philosopher. He rising and him the setting sun, his selfwished, as he expressed it, to exhibit the love was so much touched that he sprang Briareus in miniature.
But scientific out of bed, and exclaimed, " Frederic may labors were by no means so well adapted judge of affairs of state, but not of me! He soon returned to poetry, and not setting yet. Frederic treated himt with his MohamT med. The attacks in the last the greatest distinction: in a moment of upon fanaticism displeased the cle:gv, enthusiasm, he even kissed his hand. He spent every subjects. Here he erected a new and day two hours with the king, and revised elegant church, with the inscription Deo his literary productions, when, as he him- erexit Voltaire.
A decided enemy of tyrself said, he never failed to praise the anny and oppression, he afforded aid and good, and quietly to strike out the bad. A quarrel between Maupertuis, who had fallen a victim to fanaticism. At president of the Berlin academy, and a that time, he wrote his masterly treatise mathematician named Konig, in which upon toleration. The granddaughter of Voltaire took part, drew upon him the the great Corneille also experienced his displeasure of Frederic, who caused his bounty.
Voltaire return- the boldest eloquence, against all which ed to the king the chamberlain's key and contravened his ideas of freedom and inthe cross of the order which had been dependence. To the clergy he was par-. But he who sends back the portrait of his mis- often injured the cause of religion itself tress; but the king soon restored them.
His leoVoltaire now made a visit to the duchess tives, moreover, were not always of the of Gotha. During his absence, Mauper- highest kind. In , the first edition tuis succeeded in depriving him of the of his works appeared, prepared under his favor of the king, and he concluded to own eye. It reconciled him with Fredreturn to France. When he reached eric the Great. This monarch renewed Frankfort on the Maine, he was stopped his correspondence with Voltaire, and by order of Frederic, because he had sent him his own bust, of porcelain, with with him various productions of the king, the inscription Viro immortali.
The emwho feared that he would use them to his press Catharine of Russia sent him, likeprejudice. He was likewise compelled wise, splendid presents, accompanied by to resign the chamberlain's key, his order, the most flattering letters. In return for and his promise of a pension of 22, an ivory box, made by herself, and for her livres. The breach between Frederic instructions prepared for the direction of and Voltaire was now irreparable. Vol- a law commission which she had instilaire wished to reside in Paris; but his tuted , he sent her a bracelet netted by his Pucelle d'Orltans had excited so much own hands.
In , a medal was stampdispleasure, that he was not allowed to ed in honor of himn, the inscription on remain in the capital. He now resided for which was a verse taken from the Henrisome years at Colmar, where he wrote ade: 11i Jte aux nations le bandeau de l'erthe Orphan of China, and bought a coun- reur. Some French literati, together try seat in the neighborhood of Geneva.
Jean Jacques Rousseau sent him his well- with the inscription Statue erige'e a Volknown treatise which had gained the taire par les honmmes de lettres ses compaprize of the academy of Dijon. Voltaire triotes; and Louis XV said, " Ie deserves returned him an answer which, among it. Joseph treatise, I desire to creep upon all-fours. Nevertheless, This ridicule made the author of Emile Voltaire was by no means happy. Too his irreconcilable enemy. Soon after, much accustomed to the constant admiraVoltaire took part in the political conten- tion of the world, he soon became weary tions then prevailing in Geneva; and, of his quiet life, and went, even in his adhaving become involved in disputes with vanced age February, , once more many of the principal people, he thought to Paris.
Here he found many admirers, i; best to leave the place. He therefdre who adored him, and many bitter enepurchased the estate of Ferney, in the Pays mies. He was sensible of the dislike ende Gex, where he resided the rest of his tertained towards him; and, therefore, life, with his niece, madame Denis. He when stopped by the officers of the cusdrew manufacturers, and other settlers, toms, with the inquiry if he had any con.
By a decree of the national asanxious; but nothing further was done to sembly , his remains were placed in molest him. The French academy sent the Pantheon, in Paris, near those of J. The actors waited upon In his countenance, as has been said, him in a body: "We have come," said there was a mixture of the eagle and the they, " to beseech you to inspire us with monkey; and, in character, he united the your odes. He was impetuous, that he considered his dramas as his chief irritable, sensitive, but also mild, compasproductions; and, in truth, dramatic sionate, benevolent, cheerful, and lively works were his last labors.
He wrote his from principle. With noble views and Tancrede in the sixty-sixth year of his age. He had something vacillating roses. From vanity he flattered the ing, with the words " God and freedom. His fame did not beIrene, which was performed on the 16th come great till after his retirement from of May.
The royal family was present, court. He was too selfish to inspire love, and the piece was received with unbound- and avarice is said to have had much ased applause. The French academy sent cendency over him. Yet he was, in his him their gratulations on this occasion, latter years, the friend of the poor, and and placed his bust by the side of Cor- the protector of the oppressed.
Notwith neille. At the sixth representation, he standing all his admirers, he gained no came into the theatre; and, when he had friend. He had great talents, but not an sat down in his box, a player entered, and elevated character; and his writings want presented him with a laurel wreath; and, the charm which only a great soul can at the conclusion of the piece, his bust give. Nevertheless, he often acted nobly. All The abbe Desfontaines, to whom he had these excitements, together with incessant shown much kindness, published, without literary labors, and the change from his any authority, an edition of the Henriade accustomed manner of life, affected his from a very imperfect manuscript.
Deshealth so much that it seemed as if he fontaines became unfortunate, repented could not live much longer. He perceiv- of what he had done, and Voltaire became ed this plainly: "I have come to Paris," again his benefactor. Being arrested on lie said, " to find my glory and my grave.
Desfontaines rectened his death. When his tenants heard ompensed this favor by a severe criticism of his sickness, they wished to go to Par- and a bitter lampoon. To a peasant, deis, and carry him, in a litter, to Ferney. The latter sent to the principal gave livres, and invited him to settle clergyman of St. Sulpice, to induce him in Ferney. In company, Voltaire was to beg Voltaire to submit to the ceremony agreeable, polite, and a complete courtier. The circumstances great that he often labored all night. Among his works, receiving the sacrament, in the eighty- his dramas hold the first place.
He is the fifth year of his age, May 30, The worthy rival of Racine and Corneille, and archbishop of Paris is said to have denied his pieces are still favorites with the the corpse Christian burial; and it was French. Notwithstanding his great wit. A tolerably complete, but peCvstriking passages, but wants true epic haps not entirely impartial review of the characters, and is faulty in its plan. His merits are not those inhabitants. It is the see of a bishof thorough investigation, but of striking op, and has a public seminary of educaand happy description, and sagacious ob- tion.
The ancient Volaterra was one of servation. His prevailing defect is the ex- the twelve principal cities of Etruria, and aggerated estimation of the superiority of had , inhabitants. Some Etruscan the French over other modern nations. See Etruria. The volume of fugitive pieces, he is unique. As a of a body has reference to the space prose writer, he is unequalled, so beauti- which it occupies.
To have a correct idea ful and polished is his expression, so co- of this, imagine a body immersed entirely pious his wit. Among all the French wri- in a liquid, which neither changes nor ters, he, perhaps, displays, in the fullest penetrates it. If it is now taken out, and degree, the peculiarities of his nation. Paris, of small bodies, the irregularity of which , is an important addition to his bi- presents some difficulty in the way of deography. Linguet the absolute and specific gravity. See Coriolanus. The abbe Du- VOLUNTEER, in military language; one vernet describes him more particularly as who serves in the army, or undertakes a a man, and a private man, in his Vie de particular duty without being obliged so Voltaire suivie d'.
Peters- survive receive rewards of money, or burg, as it had stood in Ferney. Somede Voltaire, by Mazure, is very partial. These mostly laid down their arms of Voltaire have been published the in ; but when the war broke out cheapest by Touquet, In , again in , and the intention of the some unpublished works of his were French to effect a landing was anfound in the imperialhermitage, at Peters- nounced, the inhabitants of Great Britain burg: the most important are a bitter rose anew, and the ministers spoke of commentary upon Rousseau's Contrat neally , volunteers being in arms.
See Jrchit'octure,vol. Dupont has lately pub- VON; a German preposition, meaning. It is prefixed mountain , which belongs to the Norie to the names of the host of noblemen in Alps, and separates them from the Tyrol. There are a few restored to Austria. The country is mouncases, also, in Germany, in which von tainous, and watered by several small rivprecedes the name of a commoner.
The ers, among which, the Lech and the Iller origin of this signification of von was, take their rise here. There is much wood probably, that the early noblemen were and good pasturage, and the raising of called by their Christian name, with the' cattle is the chief occupation of the inhabaddition of the castle or village which be- itants. The corn produced is not equal longed to them. Before family names be- to the consumption. There are cotton came settled see aamLes , it was very cus- manufactures here, and the making tomary, on the European continent, to call wooden ware, and the building of boats any person, commoner or nobleman, by and houses the latter exported to Switzerhis Christian name, with the addition of land , employ a great number of the inthe place in which he resided, either habitants.
The chief town Bregenz has changed into an adjective, or with the inhabitants. Conrad was sent to celebrated poets of Holland, of which, Haerlem and Heidelberg, at which unihowever, he was not a native, was born versity he was created a doctor of diviniat Cologne, in His parents, who ty. After giving lectures on theology, at were Anabaptists, removed to Holland Geneva, in , he accepted a professorwhile he was a child, and the poet him- ship at Steinfurt, until , when he reself afterwards went over to the Arminians ceived a call to succeed Arminius in the q.
Roman Catholic church, in Nature 1Having accepted this offer, he soon behad endowed him with extraordinary tal- came involved in the controversial war ents, and he derived little aid from edu- which raged in the Netherlands; and the cation. He has been called the Dutch Gomarists, taking advantage of a book Shakspeare.
Devoting himself entirely which he had published, entitled 7Tlactato the cultivation of poetry, Vondel first tus Theologicus de Deo, accused him of learned Latin and French in the thirtieth heresy. James I, on receiving the book year of his age, read the Roman and of Vorstius, drew up a catalogue of hereFrench writers, and endeavored to supply sies from it, which he sent to his minister the deficiencies of his early education.
He also caused his book to correct. His poems compose nine vols. Among Vorstius, none of his subjects should visit the latter, Palamedes, an allegorical piece Leyden. The appearance of a work, by relating to the death of Barneveldt, and some of his disciples, entitled De Officio the Conquest of Amsterdam, are consid- ChristianiHominis, which contained some ered the masterpieces of Dutch tragedy.