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Their bravery against the British, using spears against the British firearms, was memorialzed in Rudyard Kipling's poem "Fuzzy-Wuzzy". There's much about this in Pynchon's V. Parisian journalist, called the "king of the popular novel," one of the most widely read writers of melodramatic fiction in the 19th-century France. Sue gained fame through the roman-feuilleton, the serial novel which gained its height in the French periodical press in the 's.

Sue's republican and socialist views are reflected in his best-known novels, Les Mysteres de Paris , set in the Paris slums, and Le Juif errant , published in installments for Le Constitutionnel in The above is from this excellent online biography. Web correspondent Stephen Remato comments: ". Those serving in the British Army use the term to refer to the Military Police in the American parlance 'snowdrops' in reference to the white helmets and gaiters ; the term 'red caps' refers to the red band around the standard British Army officer's cap, what one might call the headband, which is usually khaki, with the exception of the red of the MPs.

This makes much more sense in context, when the ownership of a narcotic cigarette is under scrutiny; why would one care if any Sudanese troops discovered this secret? W's entry is seriously misleading, though funny. British military police are identified by their red caps.

Sudanese my ass. See also As in "Half a loaf is better than none"? Phrase: H. In the long run we are all dead. A Tract on Monetary Reform, ch. An engineering term. Pynchon studied engineering. Correspondent Erik Johnson adds the following in relation to the references to the Adenoid here and at I believe it's likely that Pynchon is also making reference to 'Adenoid Hynkel,' the character of the dictator and mockery of Hitler played by Charlie Chaplin in the film The Great Dictator. Phrase: It was a giant Adenoid! To "blather" is to talk on foolishly the reason for his mysterious death?

Lord Blather Hard? Sanjak and Sandjak are the most common English transliterations of the Turkish word Sancak, which literally means "banner". They were the sub-divisions of the Ottoman provinces referred to as vilayet, eyalet or pashaluk. Adenoid Giant, 14 ; "the Adenoid" ; [An adenoid is an enlarged mass of lymphoid tissue at the back of the pharynx characteristically obstructing breathing — usually used in plural. Besides the observer balloons above, "the balloon is up" is British slang for "fighting is engaged", "war has begun". It was called "Battle of the Bulge" because of the bulge it created in American lines along the Western Front.

Lourdes A pilgrimage town in southwestern France, situated at the foot of the Pyrenees IFrom February 11 to July 16 ,, Bernadette Soubirous, a 14 -year-old girl, had numerous visions of the Virgin Mary in the nearby Massabielle grotto, on the left bank of the stream that runs through the town. In , the Pope declared the visions authentic, and thus the cult of Our Lady of Lourdes was sanctioned. Midgets in their dark winter clothes, exquisite little frocks and nip-waisted overcoats, were running all over the station, gobbling their bonvoyage chocolates and lining up for news photos.

Reichssieger is misspelled. Again at Reference in text should read " V See note above at 17 9. Formby was extraordinarily popular in recordings and films in Britain in the s. Weisenburger may be confusing Formby with the ukulele-strumming s singing phenomenon Tiny Tim. On the other hand, his singing voice did have a rather whiny Lancastrian accent, similar to his speaking voice. TRP mentions the left eye quite a bit. Vera Meroving, in 21 V.

The left eye here belongs to a 23 Weimaraner, a dog which European royalty used to hunt big game like boar and bear. Weimaraner dogs are known for their loyalty to family, sensitivity, high intelligence and problem solving ability and have thus been called the dog with a human brain.

Amber left eye of a dog echoes The Beatles' I am the Walrus': "yellow matter custard dripping from a dead dog's eye. Correspondent Stephen Remato adds the following comment: "While detailing the debris on Slothrop's desk, Mr. To those unaware, the superficial similarity in name between these types of aircraft is the main similarity only; they are not variations of the same aircraft but quite distinct.

The NOTW was not a daily paper but a highly sensationalistic British weekly tabloid published every Sunday, with virtually no serious news still being published, and now owned by Rupert Murdoch's News Corporation. That "Slothrop is a faithful reader" says much about his intellectual pursuits. Skinner died of leukemia on August 18 , ; Possibly this was argot in , but now good space-age English; it means forces due to acceleration or deceleration, measured in multiples of the weight of the accelerated object.

It couldn't have hurt to say that "British football" means American "soccer. Of course it didn't happen. Darlene 19 ; nurse at St. Not "tour of duty," as in Weisenburger, but "temporary duty. It was, and still is, the area where the poorest people of London live. Famously, Queen Elizabeth's mother made a royal visit there during the war where she was enthusiastically received. A reminder of Katje" ; discovers film used with Grigori, ; looking for Pirate, ; with Pirate again "she has lost her surface" , ; her little brother Louis, ; going to Nordhausen, ; loss of "futureless look" ; "she's not of our moment, our time, at all" ; Golden Bitch, ; Principle of Maximizing Risk, ; "Shouldn't I be going all the way in?

Even this early in the novel, Slothrop has problems with his "temporal bandwidth. While sources do agree with Weisenburger that the term "86" might originate in rhyming slang for "nix" , they also agree that it was first used in the restaurant business to indicate menu items that were no longer available.

The wider usage here may not have originated until the s. The term "frick and frack" is often used to designate two people or almost any two items closely associated with each other. The term originates from the stage names of a pair of Swiss skaters who starred in ice shows in the s. Pynchon probably chose the name more for its senseless alliteration like "Kit-Kat Club" than any specific meaning. That A could do B. But that was false. I'm not as ready as you to junk cause-and-effect" 90 ; "She came twice before cock was ever officially put inside cunt, and this is important to both of them though neither has figured out why" ; "Each firebloom, followed by blast then by sound of arrival, is a mockery […] of the reversible process" ; "When one event happens after another with this awful regularity, of course you don't automatically assume that it's cause-and-effect" ; "'You're the cause-and-effect man,' she cried.

How did he connect together the fragments he saw while his eyes were open? He was the cause-and-effect man" ; "Parallel, not series. Signs and symptoms. Mapping on to different coordinate systems. All right. The word "parable," interestingly, comes from the same root as "parabola.

Slothrop's Progress may be Time itself. Sir Arthur Eddington coined the term "time's arrow" to describe entropy's progress and time's irreversibility— i. Scientific American, Jan , p. Luftwaffe 25 ; German airforce; "resort near Scheveningen" 97 ; "Army vs. The Berkshire town was first created by Pynchon in the short story "The Secret Integration," set in the mids. This story also introduced the Slothrop family, in the person of Hogan Slothrop, who is apparently the son of Tyrone's brother.

Minges or "midges" are small, biting insects. However, "minge" is also a British slang term for a woman's genitals. Correspondent Igor Zabel explains this term: ". Weisenburger claims that this epitaph, with its debt to "nature" rather than God, would be heretical to Puritans. That might be so, but the inscription was fairly common on tombstones in the northeast from the mids until the early s, a range that includes Constant's death. Phrase: Death is a debt to nature due. The son of "Constant": The two names play a mathematical pun and suggest the family's decline as well.

Both names seem to be a pun as well on the name of Puritan minister and Harvard president, the Rev. Increase attempted to decrease the heat surrounding the Salem Witch Trials through a series of sermons seeking moderation in the use of spectral evidence, even though he defended the trials and the judges. Parallels: Second law of thermodynamics. See Pynchon's comments in his introduction to Slow Learner.

Although not the sole source, the book provides important background for "The Secret Integration" and the Berkshire segments of Gravity's Rainbow. Most of the offices and trades listed here except for "smokers and salters of bacon" are noted at one place or another in the guidebook.

On Feb. Senate investigation of treatment of Indians in general. The Berkshire Hills describes several paper mills in the region and notes the importance of the industry. One producer, Crane and Company, first used the term "bond" for high-quality paper and provided special paper for U. William C. It will never fall. Built in Lenox, Mass. It had rooms with a fireplace in each and a resident orchestra.

Situated at feet above sea level, it commanded breath-taking views. It was destroyed by fire in The statue, designed by French sculptor Frederic Auguste Barthold, is constructed of copper sheets which are assembled on a framework of steel supports designed by Eugene-Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc and Alexandre-Gustave Eiffel. For transit to America, the figure was disassembled into pieces and packed in crates. Four months later, it was reassembled on Bedloe's Island renamed Liberty Island in Tyrone Slothrop's brother, presumably the father of the Hogan Slothrop of "The Secret Integration," set in the Berkshires a generation later.

Codreanu Threatened on the west by Germany and on the east by Russia, Romania was in a perpetual state of instability. In the early s, it was hit by the Great Depression which profoundly affected the country. Workers' strikes were fiercely suppressed, giving rise to a strong Rumanian Communist Party and, concurrently, an extreme rightist movement. Corneliu Zelea Codreanu's anti-semitic, ultra-nationalistic League of the Archangel Michael formed in , known to the foreign press as "The Iron Guard" and based in Iasi, gained increasing popularity.

Patterning the League after the Nazis, Codreanu declared himself the mortal enemy of democracy and the Jews. The Iron Guard practiced a political gangsterism, terrorizing the populace. Their political wing, Totul Pentru Tara "Everything for the Fatherland" had success in the elections and enacted anti-Jewish legislation. Many other Legionnaires were arrested and imprisoned; "No, they are making believe to be narodnik, but I know, they are of Iasi, of Codreanu, his men, men of the League, they … kill for him—they have oath!

One of David Niven's autobiographical books goes into this. More at Jessica's last name, like other musical references in the novel, is suggestive. Like the heroine of the Tchaikovsky ballet, she finds true love and is transformed, but then is abducted back to her former state by an evil magician in this case, Pointsman. Control 30 ; illusion of, 30 ; "We, are in control. He, cannot help, himself" 82 ; Pointsman "must never lose control" ; "all in his life of what has looked free or random, is discovered to've been under some Control, all the time, the same as a fixed roulette wheel" ; Cybernetic tradition, ; ; ; of Ilse, of love, ; ; "innocence and its many uses" in a corporate State, ; "'She's supposed to be dead.

All these things arise from one difficulty: control. For the first time it was inside, do you see. The control is put inside. No more need to suffer passively under 'outside forces'—to veer into any wind. You call that living? Come in here" ; "You don't have to come into this any further than locating Slothrop" ; "How long can I get away with easy work, cheap exits? Shouldn't I be going all the way in? Blicero; Dominus Blicero, 30 ; with Katje and Gottfried, 94 - 99 , - 04 ; finding Enzian, 99 - ; "mirror-metaphysics" ; "recently back from South-West Africa" ; "took [Dominus Blicero] as his SS code name" ; in love with his own death, ; "part salesman, part scientist" ; "balding, scholarly" ; "brought [Ilse] from Stettin.

As Weisenburger notes, "eventyr" is Danish for "adventure" but in the sense of a tale or story "The Adventures of. It can signify "folk tales" or "fairy tales," as in Hans Christian Andersen's stories. The first name evokes Lewis Carroll but it also suggests the astrologer Carroll Righter, whose face appeared on the cover of Time magazine for a story about growing interest in the occult on March 21 , Righter, nicknamed "The Gregarious Aquarius," later would read charts for Ronald Reagan, among other celebrities. Also see the note at 23 But Jessica was the breaking of the wave.

The Principle predicts that most people, most of the time, are turned back by modest hurdles that they know could be overcome, with effort. To be habitual, an action must be relatively effortless or carry a particularly large psychic reward. And in what constitutes a "large reward," opinions and motivations vary widely across individuals.

As Robert Heinlein wrote in Time Enough for Love: "The Principle of Least Effort: 'Progress doesn't come from early risers—progress is made by lazy men looking for easier ways to do things. Correspondent Igor Zabel offers this interesting elaboration on the reference: "A few years ago, I came upon a short article in our daily newspaper Delo, which could be interesting here. She told she had seen in her trance a dead soldier wearing a cap with the inscription HMS Barham, who had told her: My ship was sunken.

The news about this fact the ship was supposedly sunken on 25 November. Winston Churchill wrote in his diary. In , Duncan was arrested since they were afraid that she would reveal also the date of the D-day. Her trial was based on the Witchcraft Act from , and she was sentenced to nine months of prison. Argument: Helen Duncan pretends that she conjures the spirits of the dead. That's Cancer in Latin. Liberation Army" was rebuffed by the British in its attempt to take power after the liberation of Greece in , with the "royalists" retaining control of the government.

Convinced that Germany would win the war, the Vichy government unanimously settled on a policy of collaboration with the Germans. When the Germans occupied all of France after the Anglo-American landings in North Africa in November of , the facade of the Vichy government was maintained. The Vichy police the Milice was headed by Darnand, who held extreme right-wing and anti-semetic views. The Milice greatly aided the Nazis in exposing the French resistance and hunting down Jews.

After French liberation in , thousands of the "Vichy traitors" were summarily executed. John's Wood among sheet-music, new recipes, a small kennel of Weimaraners whose racial purity she will go to extravagant lengths to preserve" ; For example, in the "home front" film Since You Went Away. Austerity "this moment of boyhood among [Pirate's] ways imperialized and set he was 33 , his preAusterity, in which Scorpia figured as his Last Fling" 36 ; " dark, lank, pre-austerity stocking" ; "every assertion the fucking War has ever made — that we are meant for work and government, for austerity" ; "an innocent salute to Postwar, a hope that the end of shortages, the end of Austerity, is near" ; "into the paper cities and afternoons of this strange peace, and the coming Austerity" ; "London today can feel advance chills of Austerity.

This is apparently a real group, although I have no information on them except that a postcard exists captioned "Fred Roper and His Wonderful Midgets" with a tall man in a busby and military greatcoat and a troop of midgets in uniform under the heading "The Toy Soldier Parade. It is the outer port for Szczecin Polish name for "Stettin" and a fishing center and seaside resort. First mention of the town dates from W's phrase "about one-half of the statistical range" points to his misunderstanding of this concept.

When frequencies numbers in the population, say are plotted versus some characteristic and the distribution is "normal" or "Gaussian," the range from 1 standard deviation symbolized as 1 sigma below to 1 sigma above the mean accounts for roughly half the cases. What's more, W is wrong to say these are "wildly divergent" people; they may all be alike, just way removed from the population average.

In this case, they exhibit abilities out of the ordinary: They are, let's say, more psychic than 98 or 99 percent of the population. There's a second 3 -sigma group, the ones who are less psychic than 98 percent. Which is really saying something. Britain sustained 57 consecutive nights of air raids, but the RAF prevailed through superior tactics and cracking German secret codes. The central chi-squared distribution is indexed by one parameter, the degrees of freedom" p. Fellow of the R. He was unsuccessful in making the transition to television in the 50s, and faded into obscurity.

He started the "New Deal" program in to combat the Great Depression, which involved abandoning the gold standard, devaluing the dollar, state intervention in the credit market, agricultural price support, and the passage of the Social Security Act which provided for old-age and unemployment insurance; ; "died back in the spring [12 April]" ; "it seemed he'd just keep getting elected, term after term, forever. But somebody had decided to change that. Veronica wiped Christ's forehead with her veil while he carried the cross; St. Veronica Papers, Phrase: St. Veronica's; "one of the original seven owners of The Book" 47 ; killed in a V-2 hit on St.

Veronica's, 46 ; "swimming up from sleep" ; "an informer whose guilt will one day sicken into throat cancer" ; "not produce. Phrase: ". He stressed psychological factors in hypnosis and contributed to the modern concept of mental and emotional disorders involving anxiety, phobias, and other abnormal behaviour. As a Ph. The name is Pynchon's but evokes "The Cobb," the famous jetty at the city of Lyme Regis on the southern coast of England. Regis is the Latin genitive of Rex, "the King" thus, "of the king. Interestingly, for PISCES and White Visitation to be headquartered in a place named Ick Regis, brings associations with the fish sickness "ick" also known as 23 the white spot disease, which is a severe dermatitis of freshwater fish caused by a protozoan of the genus Ichthyophthirius and is especially destructive in aquariums and hatcheries called also ichthyophthiriasis, ichthyophthirius.

Hence, the "white visitation" could, again, be a sickness. Yes it is the biggest fucking octopus Slothrop has ever seen outside of the movies, Jackson," ; "Shaking Slothrop waves the crab at the octopus" ; "this octopus is not in good mental health" ; "that was no "found" crab, Ace—no random octopus or girl, uh-uh" ; "'I saved a dame from an octopus not so long ago, how about that? But that octopus didn't. In , this German field marshal directed the Ardennes offensive Battle of the Bulge.

General Dwight D. A standard advanced math textbook among, here, a scatter of math publications. Google hit. Grid "a glittering map. It can be an axiom or an observation but not, I think, a proposition subject to proof. No links? Is it the end of history? Iam amore virginaliTotus ardeo.

Oh, Oh, Oh,I bloom completely! Now with virgin loveI burn completely. Each hit is independent of all the others. Puritans Calvinist insanity, 57 ; "a Puritan reflex of seeking other orders behind the visible" ; "all those word-smitten Puritans dangling off of Slothrop's family tree" ; "Just a neuter, just a recording eye" ; "all those earlier Slothrops packing Bibles around the blue hilltops as part of their gear, memorizing chapter and verse the structures of Arks, Temples, Visionary Thrones—all the materials and dimensions.

It was one of Britten's first works to win international notice. Edward Simpson. He was then given the title Duke of Windsor. This isn't a postal district, it is a probably fictitious address in the entirely factual E1 postal district of London. Stating the obvious, Red is 1 Malcolm X, whose nickname "Red" referred to his hair color — a dark cinnamon brown. In February Malcolm moved to Boston to live with his older half-sister, worked a variety of jobs including shoeshine and became involved in Boston's "underworld fringe," pimping among other things.

This homoerotic scene seems based on some facts. According to Malcolm's sidekick Malcolm Jarvis, he [Malcolm] was paid to sprinkle Lennon with talcum powder and bring him to orgasm. Phrase: "'Slip the talcum to me, Malcolm! The Biddles are one of the leading families of Philadelphia, who sometimes vacationed in the Berkshires.

Specifically, the "Gobbler" could be Nicholas Biddle Harvard, Although, as 7 Weisenburger notes, the character is named for Fu Manchu who is an important reference for Pointsman later in the novel , it should be recalled that there was also a "Fu" who was a member of the Whole Sick Crew in V. An anachronism to the novel's time period, yes, but perhaps an inspiration to the author. JFK is said to be in Slothrop's Harvard class. Estimating, Slothrop was born ca and entered Harvard in , the year of Harvard's tricentennial. They were both in their mids during the action in GR.

A handsome and charismatic man, he was assassinated in Dallas, Texas in ; in Slothrop's class at Harvard, 65 ; ; Pard turned against pard; every man suspected his neighbor. And to solve that mystery, The Kenosha Kid -- Robinhood of straights and flushes — plays his most thrilling game for a desperation jackpot. The 10 Capehart automatic phonograph with a turn-over mechanism was the epitome of luxury phonographs, technical excellence and supreme electronics in the s and 40s.

For Crutchfield, there is only one of everything, as opposed to two of every animal on Noah's whole Ark. And how much use is half an Ark in a flood, anyway? Phrase: Half an Ark's better than none. The "badlands. Players wager on the top 2 or 3 cards of the dealer's deck. The coal-tar colors of organic chemistry that resonate throughout the novel.

A Companion to Classical Receptions - A Companion to Classical Receptions - Wiley Online Library

Coal tar colors? Coal tar is a brown or black liquid of high viscosity, Wikipedia. Pynchon seems to associate positive things with these colors—see Against the Day particularly—as he does with bandanas. A-and bananas. See note at 12 V Correspondent Matthias Bauer notes that "sam" derives from the German "samen," for "seed.

Significant properties of note for Tyrosine: - Tyrosine functions as a 27 phenol, which Nazi doctors used in injections for rapid executions. Phenols were used extensively at Auschwitz-Birkenau. Oh dear oh dear. Kryptosam isn't hard, from kryptos and German Samen 'semen'. But tyrosine isn't hard either, and I find it genuinely shocking that W failed this one.

It's an amino acid, named from Greek tyros 'cheese', one substance where it occurs. Compare your spanakotiropita, Greek spinach and cheese pie. In present-day German we'd write Interessengemeinschaft as one word, but possibly at some past time the name was two words as in W. Come with a message" ; "Saves you trouble later if you "The Mothers. What does it signal this time? Information, - 45 ; "the War is keeping things alive.

Dawes-era 74 ; Charles Dawes was the vice-president under Coolidge from After his election as president, he instituted greater economic and social benefits for the working class wage increases and fringe benefits and nationalized the railroads and other utilities, as well as financed large-scale public works. Ideologically, he staked his Third Position between communism and capitalism. Schwarzkommando 74 - 75 ; German: "blackcommand"; black rocket troops; ;found out about a week before V. Another suggestion of one of Pynchon's favorite motifs, the little cartoon hero Porky Pig.

See note at 23 V Analysis "a spot of combinatorial analysis, that favorite pastime of retired Army officers" 76 ; " 'I wonder if you people aren't a bit too—well, strong, on the virtues of analysis'" 88 ; "the stairstep gables that front so many of these ancient north-German buildings […] They hold shape, they endure, like monuments to Analysis. It has learned empire from its old metropolis" He became famous by showing others how to become successful.

His book How to Win Friends and Influence People has sold more than 10 million copies and has been translated into many languages. His books became popular because of his illustrative stories and simple, well-phrased rules. Two of his most famous maxims are, "Believe that you will succeed, and you will," and "Learn to love, respect and enjoy other people. Coueists 77 ; Coueism is a form of psychotherapy dependent upon auto-suggestion developed and promoted by emile Coue , a French pharmacist.

Roosevelt, the "New Deal" program was set up to combat the Great Depression, by abandoning the gold standard, devaluing the dollar, state intervention in the credit market, agricultural price support, and the passage of the Social Security Act which provided for old-age and unemployment insurance. Ouspensky was a disciple of George Ivanovitch Gurdjieff c. Gurdjieff's asserted that human life as ordinarily lived is similar to sleep and, if one is willing to work to transcend the sleeping state, one could reach remarkably high levels of vitality and awareness.

Another example of the Turning Head motif. It must be 80 [beats] per minute, not per second. Eighty ticks a second makes a low-pitched buzz. Webley is the name of the British gun manufacturer. The family name means neither "evil valley" as it stands in Weisenburger's Companion, nor "of the pink valley" as it is in the Alphabetical Index but "of the Valley of Roses". In fact, this is a Jewish name, the literal Magyarization of the German name Rosenthal. Geza's first name also suggests the Hungarian-American psychologist Geza Roheim, who was one of the first to employ psychoanalytic critiques of culture.

Rozsavolgyi is the name of a famous Budapest music store founded in , which also published works by Liszt, Bartok and Kodaly, among others. He defined charismatic authority to be one of three forms of authority, the other two being traditional feudal authority and legal or rational authority. These as such are not accessible to the ordinary person, but are regarded as divine in origin or as exemplary, and on the basis of them the individual concerned is treated as a leader. First, it was the process through which magical, supernatural and religious ideas lose cultural importance in a society and ideas based on science and practical calculation become dominant.

For example, in modern societies science has rationalized our understanding of weather patterns. Science explains weather patterns as a result of interaction between physical elements like wind-speed and direction, air and water temperatures, humidity, etc. In some other cultures, weather is thought to express the pleasure or displeasure of gods, or spirits of ancestors.

One explanation is rationalized and scientific, the other mysterious and magical. Rationalization also involves the development of forms of social organization devoted to the achievement of precise goals by efficient means. It is this type of rationalization that we see in the development of modern business corporations and of bureaucracy. These are organizations dedicated to the pursuit of defined goals by calculated, systematically administered means. See use in Against the Day, page A double pun: "Pall [dark and gloomy covering] of the night"; also "Pall de l'ennui [of boredom].

I'd contend there has never in the history of the world been a Hungarian who spoke English haltingly. Allport and P. Vernon, this "values survey" was a questionnaire consisting of 15 items. Each item presented a description of a situation followed by four options representing different possible behaviors. Each option represented one of six types of values: namely, theoretical, economic, political, aesthetic, social, or religious. For each item, subjects were asked to rank-order their preferences for the four options. For example, one question read "Should one guide one's conduct according to, or develop chief loyalties toward," the option "one's religious faith" reflecting Religious values.

Another read "To what extent do the following famous persons interest or attract you? Results were used to distinguish, among other things, "certainty-oriented" ambiguity-avoidant people vs. His test consists of 10 cards, half in color and half in black and white. The subject is shown the 10 blots one at a time, the task being to describe what she sees in the blots or what they remind her of. Rozsavolgyi's fellow countryman would be, of course, Bela Lugosi, whose speech patterns are suggested by Pynchon's punctuation of Rozsavolgyi's dialogue. Aaron was the brother of and spokesperson for Moses.

A throwster is one who makes threads out of silk. The name is fairly common in Britain. Phrase: Dr. Plassy Plassey, aka Palashi, is a historic village in east-central West Bengal state, northeastern India, and was the scene of the decisive victory of British forces under Robert Clive over those of the Nawab of Bengal, Siraj-ud-Dawlah assisted by French artillery troops , in Sent to reestablish British trading stations in Bengal, Clive was aided in his mission by the treachery of the nawab's generals. At the Battle of Plassey, Clive's forces included elephants packtrains.

The battle helped pave the way for the British acquisition of Bengal and established Clive as its virtual master; "Clive and his elephants stomping the French at" Murray, then assistant director of the Harvard Psychological Clinic, joined the OSS in Europe and assisted James Miller in developing psychological profiles of prospective special agents — so called stress tests. He also analyzed Hitler for the Allies, predicting that if Germany lost the war, Hitler would commit suicide; that Hitler was impotent as far as heterosexual relations were concerned; and that Hitler had possibly participated in a homosexual relationship — all suggestive of Blicero.

After and the Cold War it seemed every self-respecting psychologist was doing side jobs for the CIA in "persuasion technologies" including LSD, various other drugs, sleep deprivation, isolation tanks, hypnosis, etc. Perhaps best well known was 22 MK Ultraunder the direction of 23 Dr.

Sidney Gottlieb. Murray himself returned to Harvard where he continued his meddling with the minds of others. One of the minds he meddled with from to belong to Theodore Kaczynski. Alston Chase's book Harvard and the Unabomber: The Education of an American Terrorist tells of the psychological experiments which Kaczynski is reported to have undergone at Harvard, under the direction of Murray. Chase connects these experiences in a controversial thesis to Kaczynski's later career as the Unabomber. With the assistance of Dr Petrie he battled the devil doctor and his minions every time their evil reared it's ugly head.

Why it's the famous 'Mystery Stimulus'". Watson and Rosalie Rayner employed classical conditioning techniques to demonstrate the development of an emotional response in a young boy "infant Albert". The presentation of a white rat was paired with the striking of a steel bar, which induced fear in the little boy. Although derived from a word meaning an antidote to poison, "treacle" is the British term for molasses and is often used to describe something excessively sweet and sticky.

Kenosha Kenosha is a city of some 85 , people in the extreme southeast of Wisconsin, about halfway between Chicago and Milwaukee, and the seat of Kenosha County. Is every non-literary word to be labeled "argot"? This one certainly is not, as any kid model-builder could have told W. After the plug is tapped out, the liqueur and sweeteners are added, and the wine is corked. That is, the goddess of the Tannhauser legend and opera. Venus is also the goddess of love, of course. She fell in love with Theseus and helped him slay her father's Minotaur by providing Theseus with a clew to find his way out of the Labyrinth; "Venus and Ariadne!

You may never get to touch the Master, but you can tickle his creatures. Grimm's Backofen literally is just an oven as opposed to a furnace. No exceptions. We want to leave it open. Taking and not giving back, […] removing from the rest of the World these vast quantities of energy to keep its own tiny desperate fraction showing a profit: […] most of the World, animal, vegetable and mineral, is laid waste in the process" ; serpent eating its tail, ; isotropy, ; Beethoven "represents the German dialectic […] where [ultimately] all notes get an equal hearing" and Webern "all notes were truly equal at last" , ; Anubis orgy as closed system, ; "inside his own cock" ; Morituri - "just keep moving" ; irreversible process, , , ; potatoes used for rockets—no food, , ; Wm.

Did she see him, and did she know him for her own second shadow? Nationaal-Socialistische Beweging is the correct spelling of the Dutch name. The first two words may sometimes be written closed up. If Kooy and Uytenbogaart wrote Schuszstelle, they were following an older practice. Arnhem Dutch city on the right bank of the lower Rhine. You must've got out by way of that Arnhem, then, right? Ophir is a territory in the Old Testament of the Bible famed for its fine gold; Berliner creator of Blicero's "false cunt and merkin of sable [with] bright purple clitoris molded of […] synthetic rubber and Mipolam" The first line of poetry should read Einsam steigt er dahin, in die Berge des Urleids..

A former friend of Blicero, probably a lover willing to indulge his sado-masochistic tastes.


The name literally means "Rough Trade. Weisenburger's information on Ufa is essentially correct, but he misgives Georg Wilhelm Pabst's first name as "Rudolf. Murnau, perhaps the greatest director of that era. His films Nosferatu the first film version of Dracula and Faust would seem to be natural allusions for Pynchon to use.

It's bad form in German to break open a compound; write Vernichtungsbefehl or, less happily, Vernichtungs-Befehl. In context it's plain that it means a "hard" or "hardstand. Good either way. It was made a Protectorate of South-West Africa under the League of Nations; now called Namibia, it was under South African control until when it gained its independence.

Wandervogel 99 ; German: "bird of passage" ; Thomas Moore: "organization, founded in as a boys' hiking and nature club, readily became, as it spread over the country, a plastic-deformable movement against all establishments of the fathers. Conscious Wandervogel politics varied across the spectrum, but all cells aggressively idealized nature, soil, soulfulness, and the spiritually exalted Bund ["brotherhood"] of youth. The GR passage refers to the popular legend that has Dick Whittington as a poor orphan worked in the kitchen of a rich London merchant. He ventures his only possession, a cat, as an item to be sold on one of his master's trading ships.

Ill-treated by the cook, Dick then runs away, but just outside the city he hears the ringing of bells that seems to say "Turn again, Whittington, Lord mayor of great London. Now wealthy, Whittington marries his master's daughter, succeeds to the business, and then becomes thrice lord mayor of London. I'm your Lord Mayor….

The Enzian was a ground-to-air missile carrying a kg warhead. The initial launch was made by four solid-fuel rockets, and as they burned out liquid-fuelled rockets took over and carried the missile to its objective. Accuracy was to be achieved by one of the special types of newly developed fuses, infra-red, thermal, or acoustic. The Enzian showed promise but the programme was shut down during January Enzian was a ground-to-air pilotless aircraft which had a similar outline to the Me target-defence interceptor fighter, for it was essentially a small aircraft with sharply swept-back wings.

As in the Me , two ailerons were incorporated for control purposes, but at launching Enzian was mounted on a large inclined platform from which take-off at a high angle was assisted by means of solid-propellant boosters mounted in pairs at the wing roots. Several versions of this weapon were being developed. An interesting addendum is the Natter "a somewhat similar but larger weapon. It differed from Enzian in that it was designed to carry a human pilot who could take control after an almost vertical and automatically-controlled ascent.

The Natter rocket plane a one shot plane that required the pilot to parachute back to Earth was the last attempt the WWII German government made to create a rocket powered manned plane. The only test flight of the Natter was a disaster - the cockpit came off in mid ascent, killing the pilot. Its sole client was IG Farben. The attacks began at p. Franciscus de La Boie aka Dr. Sylvius , a Dutchman.

  1. Table of Contents.
  3. ToposText - Ancient Texts for Geography!
  4. I Talk to the Trees - C Instruments.
  6. Bagatelle in G Major;
  7. Wonders of 1001 Nights: The Three Apples (Wonders of 1001 Nights Series Book 7).

He mixed oil of Juniper berries with grain alcohol, both of which have diuretic properties. He called his new medical concoction "genever" French for "Juniper". Safe passage through a bad night" ; "one-thim Brain Trusters. Despite the connections with other forms of death-in-life that are referred to throughout Gravity's Rainbow, White Zombie is the only direct reference to 23 Dumbo Dumbo zombies.

That may be because the zombie myth is of black and African origin. Pynchon has carefully chosen the title to reflect his use of whiteness as the color of death.

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Although the depiction of the crows in Dumbo is clearly racist, they give the little elephant the "magic" feather that he thinks he needs but really doesn't in order to fly. The Disney film will continue to be an important touchstone later in the novel when Slothrop meets Pig Bodine. Compare Pynchon's bitterly ironic use of the Dumbo reference at V This contributor would bet a first edition hardcover of Gravity's Rainbow that Pynchon was aware of the "Dumbo". He became foreign secretary in the Labour government Dumbo one of Osbie Feel's favorite movies, ; "the lads in Hollywood telling us how grand it all is over here, how much fun, Walt Disney causing Dumbo the elephant to clutch to that feather" ; "'[Dillinger's bloodstained shirt] worked for me, but I'm out of the Dumbo stage now, I can fly without it.

Jungfrau ; German: "young girl" usu. W makes your head spin. The isolated Dutchman going slowly mad under the southern sun, whose "very perceptions" are changed and who writes numerous letters to his brother seems to be a reference to Vincent Van Gogh; the kind of tacit anachronism that Pynchon likes to use in.

The capital is Metz. Quoad; in Mrs. Gilbert collaboratively developed a distinctive English form of the operetta. The combination of Gilbert's satire and verbal ingenuity and Sullivan's melodiousness and sense of parody created such internationally acclaimed works as H. Pinafore and The Pirates of Penzance Mefo bills were accepted by all German banks but no reference to them was allowed in published accounts.

Twelve billion marks in Mefo bills were issued before the outbreak of WWII, and much of German trade was financed in this manner; V - 20 Eyeties: "[B]its from light operas by respectively Verdi and Puccini. Although Weisenburger declares this a mistake "a miscount" , upon closer inspection it's actually quite intentional, a sly device to underscore Roger's and Jessica's confusion. Leicester's ancient tradition of Town Waits — official musicians who supported the Lord Mayor at civic events, entertained townspeople and feted visitors.

The waits were originally guards or watchmen who walked round the town at night looking out for fires or other trouble. They rang bells to tell people the time, or called out '2 o'clock and all's well'. They also played music for the Lord Mayor's guests on big occasions, and entertained the general public. This became their main job. By the waits' instruments were a cornet, a euphonium, a tenor horn and a trombone.

From then, the waits mostly played popular requests for a small fee, which was given to charity. By the s, a request would cost about half a crown 12p. The Leicester Waits were disbanded around In dulci jubilo In sweet Joy Sing and shout all below! He for whom we're pining Lies in praesepio In a manger Like the sun is shining Matris in gremio. In His mothers lap. Qui est A et O. Who is Alpha and Omega.

Manicheans From Brewer's: "Followers of Mani, who taught that the universe is controlled by two antagonistic powers, light or goodness identified with God , and darkness, chaos, or evil. It was frequented by many stars, some of whom graciously performed menial tasks, while others entertained the crowd. Dozens of those celebrities appear as themselves in this lavish musical about romances that blossom between canteen employees and soldiers.

Chaplain is misspelled. By the way, Oscar Brand used to sing a very funny song about Harry Pollitt, ending "The moral of this story is very plain to tell: If you want to be a Socialist you'll have to go to Hell. Although first married under the Napoleonic Code in a secret ceremony in Paris in the spring of , they had an official marriage in Carmel, California, for the benefit of the Baez family.

Pynchon was the best man for the Carmel ceremony, coming up from Mexico City where he was living and working on Gravity's Rainbow. Richard and Mimi Farina formed a folk-music duo Farina on guitar and Mimi on dulcimer, both singing and released several albums in the 60s. You might want to visit this sweet website dedicated to the memory of Richard and Mimi who died of cancer in He also had Jesus' cousin, John the Baptist, executed for, among other things, condemning Herod's marriage to his half-brother's wife.

Gypsy Rose Lee performed there in the s, as well as comedians W. In he was sentenced to a year's imprisonment for seditious libel and incitement to mutiny. In he was acquitted in another sedition trial. In he became head of his party as general secretary. Roosevelt in the U. From 11 to 12 in the morning is the Evil Hour, when the white woman with the ring of keys comes out of her mountain and may appear to you […] The Hour is hers" - 75 ; "the Evil Hour has worked its sorcery" ; "the height of the Evil Hour" ; "horror will come when the afternoon is brightest" ; "Horror in the brightest hour of afternoon" ; "a man in a white suit […] who's supposed to be on the Strand-Promenade […] every day around noon" ; "The exact clock time, which varies throughout the year, is known as Rocket Noon" ; "today's Rocket Noon, two circular explosions inside the rush hour" ; "ev'ry day at Rocket Noon, there's death, and revelry" ; "what's shadowless noon and what isn't" ; "a common criminal who is to be hanged at noon" ; "the noon on the Heath when was fired" ; "You know what time.

The usual hour. The word is defined by Webster's New World English Dictionary as a "large, medieval, swift-sailing water ship. An allusion to the supposed fate of the Carter-Carnarvon expedition that opened the tomb of Tut-ankh-Amen. The Athenians had been sending seven youths and seven maidens to Crete each year to be set loose in the Labyrinth and eaten by the Minotaur. This yearly reparation was Minos' revenge for the jealous Athenians having killed Minos' son because of his victory over Athens in athletic games.

King Aegeus sent his son Theseus as one of the seven youths in the next year's sacrifice. However, King Minos' daughter Ariadne had fallen in love with Theseus and so provided him with an indestructible clew to unwind as he entered the Labyrinth. He handily slew the Minotaur and was able to exit the Labyrinth; "[Pointsman's] lonely Thesean brushings down his polished corridors of years" ; See also labyrinth; Weaving the Web. Their white collars rigid in the shadows. It all comes down. Look at this desolation, all built then hammered back into pieces" ; "a system whose only aim is to violate the Cycle.

Taking and not giving back, […] removing from the rest of the World these vast quantities of energy to keep its own tiny desperate fraction showing a profit: […] most of the World, animal, vegetable and mineral, is laid waste in the process" ; "innocence and its many uses" ; keeping Earth "for the numb and joyless hardons of. That it is now within the state of Their art to go on forever" ; "They need our terror for Their survival" ; "There's something still on, don't call it a 'war' if it makes you nervous, maybe the deasth rate's gone down a point or two […] but Their enterprise goes on" ; "necktie or cock" ; "Creative paranoia means developing at least as thorough a We-system as a They-system" ; "They will come and shut off the water first" ; ; "Their mission in this world is Bad Shit" ; "Which is worse: living on as Their pet, or death?

The name of the dog that Pointsman seeks translates loosely as "Realm of Victory over the Nightmare of Death. Your translation of "alpdrucken" is basically correct; it is actually the impression drucken of dread or fear one has during any bad dream, as opposed to an actual nightmare alptraum.

The structure of the name mimics standard pedigree dogs' titles-breeder's kennel, given name, then owner's kennel. Reichssieger is not a soldier but a victor, i. Whitehall ; Britain's center for government in London. Eponymically named for Whitehall Palace which was located there but burned down in the late 17th century; ; ; ; Vergeltungswaffen plural means "retribution weapons"; the singular form ends in -waffe.

Blasius Phrase: St. Aether "as if all tuned in to the same aethereal Xth Programme" ; "They don't want us to know there is a medium there, what used to be called an 'aether' […] The Soniferous Aether" ; "a presence, analogous to the Aether, flows through time, as the Aether flows through space. Jenny is an evil spirit who haunts stagnant pools in Lancashire. She preys on children who wander too close to the water, grabbing them in her long green fangs and pulling them underwater to drown. She can be found in any pool or pond which is covered in green scum. Obviously, she's invoked to keep the kids away from the water.

And the postwar PVC raincoat at Surely I hallucinate'" ; "Rocketman, holy shit, it really is. What's happening, ol' buddy? He is either tamed — by too much mathematics, by details of design, by corporate procedures — or he stays wild, an eternal predator. Correspondent Igor Zabel offers the following gloss on Weisenberger's note, which makes sense in the context of the passage:. The last name derives from "asche": cinders, ashes. Weissmann "white man" , who turns out to be Capt.

Blicero, is the decadent character associated with one of the manifestations of the Lady V. Altrincham ; "the old ladies in Altrincham trying to summon up the Devil" - Altrincham is a city near Manchester in England. American radicals and dissident blacks didn't invent it; international communists used this salute for generations. A possibly Austrian online commentator suggests translating the phrase as an imperative: "Raise the Fist! As 2 Weisenburger notes, Pynchon probably means "Judenschnauze" here, but the term is more likely to mean "Jewish snout" or nose than "Jewish jaw.

See note at 3 Schnauze is a word for a canine face, so it might mean "Jewish mug" as well. It also denotes a manner of speech, as in "Er hat eine berliner Schnauze" "He speaks the Berlin dialect". W's entry is meaningless. In P's image, taken from any standard calculus text, you evaluate the change in a quantity from one slice of time to the next; relate it to the time, delta-t, between slices; and state how the ratio behaves as delta-t gets real small. The result is the rate of change, or derivative, or slope of a curve.

Kriemhild and Siegfried are misspelled. At this stage, for all her professed radicalism, Leni allows herself to be deluded by ethnic stereotyping. Notice her attraction to Rebecca because of her Otherness. Soon, though, Leni will be "Judaized" 7 Of Pflaumbaum's fate, see note at. With the great influx of films from the United States to Europe between the wars, several film-producing countries, including Germany, enacted decrees that a certain number of films shown had to be of national origin. These "quota" films were often quick and shoddy productions made only to satisfy government demands so that the more profitable American films could still be shown.

Phrase: It may have been a quota film. Mondaugen was introduced as a character in the South-West Africa episodes of V. Picture of 13 Justus Liebig right Phrase: true succession, Liebig to [. Where does W get off passing judgment on someone else's German usage? Raumschifffahrt 'space flight' is misspelled. Under a recent spelling reform, I believe, the third F has been suppressed, but the H is not optional. Lemuria The lost land that is supposed to have connected Madagascar with India and Sumatra in prehistoric times. After being exiled to Siberia for 3 years for his activities, he lived in Switzerland in Somebody check me on this.

As one Edition: current; Page: [ 18 ] then that should take from the world the air, and remove it from between the moon and the earth, would dissolve the continuation and composition of the universe, by leaving an empty place in the midst, without any contexture to hold the two parts together; so those that do not allow Daemons oppose all communication and conference of the Gods with men, seeing they destroy that nature as Plato says which serves as an interpreter and messenger between them both; or else they constrain us to perplex and confound all things together, by mixing the divine nature with human passions, and plucking it down from heaven, as the women of Thessaly are said to do the moon.

Even this fiction has met with belief in some women, because Aglaonice, the daughter of Hegetor, being skilful in astrology, made the vulgar believe, whenever the moon was eclipsed, that by means of some charms and enchantments she brought it down from heaven.

But as to us, let us not think there are any oracles or divinations without some divinity, or that the Gods are not pleased with sacrifices, and our services, and other ceremonies. And, on the other hand, let us not think that God is present in them, or employs himself personally about them; but rather believe that he does commit them to his officers, the Daemons, who are the spies and scouts of the Gods, wandering and circuiting about at their commands, — some beholding and ordering the sacred ceremonies and oblations offered to the Gods, others being employed to revenge and punish the high misdemeanors and enormous injustices of men.

There are, moreover, others, to whom Hesiod gives a very venerable name, calling them the distributers of riches and donors of largesses among mortals; for the Gods have allowed them the privilege, and granted them a royal commission to see them duly distributed. He informs us here, by the way, that to be beneficent and liberal of favors is the proper office of a king. For there is a difference of Edition: current; Page: [ 19 ] virtue between these Daemons, as much as between men. For there are some of them in whom still there are some small remains though weak and scarcely discernible of the sensitive and irrational soul, which, like a small quantity of excrements and superfluities, stay still behind.

Others there are, in whom there abideth a greater measure of these gross humors, the marks and traces of which are to be seen in many places, in the odd and singular ceremonies and sacrifices and the strange fables which prevail. As to the mysteries and secret ceremonies, by which we may more clearly than by any other means understand the nature of Daemons, let me keep a religious silence, as Herodotus says. But as to the certain feasts and direful sacrifices which are held as unfortunate and mournful days, and are celebrated by eating raw flesh and tearing the skin with the nails, or days wherein they fast and smite their breasts, and in several places utter filthy and dishonest words during the sacrifices,.

For it is not likely there ever was a God that expected or required men to be sacrificed to him, as has been anciently done, or who received such kind of sacrifices with approbation. Neither must we imagine it was for nothing, that kings and great men have delivered their own children to be sacrificed, or that they sacrificed them themselves with their own hands; but they intended hereby to avert and appease the malice and rancor of some evil spirits, or to satisfy the violent and raging lusts of some, who either could not or would not enjoy them with their bodies or by their bodies.

Even as Hercules besieged the city of Oechalia for a wench that Edition: current; Page: [ 20 ] was therein, so these powerful and tyrannical Daemons, requiring some human soul which is still compassed with a body, and yet not being able to satisfy their lust by the body, do therefore bring the plague and famine into towns, raise wars and seditions, till such time as they obtain and enjoy that which they love. Others, on the contrary as I remember I observed in Crete, for I was some considerable time there celebrate a feast in which they show the figure of a man without a head, calling it Molus, the father of Meriones, who, having violently laid hands on the Nymph, was afterwards found without a head.

The rapes committed on boys or girls, the long voyages, flights, banishments, and voluntary services of the Gods, which are sung by the poets, are passions fitting to be attributed not to Gods, but to Daemons, whose fortunes were recorded in memorial of their virtue and power. Neither is Aeschylus in the right, when he says,. The divines of Delphi were far from the truth when they asserted that there was a combat between Apollo and a Dragon about the possession of this oracle.

No less are they to blame who suffer the poets or orators in the open theatres to act or speak of such matters; whereby they seem to condemn those things which themselves perform in their sacred solemnities. Philippus for this man was an historian, and then present in the company , wondering at what was last said, enquired what divine solemnities they contradicted and condemned who contended one against another in the theatres. Even those, quoth Cleombrotus, which concern the oracle of Delphi, by which this city has lately admitted into these ceremonies and sacrifices all the Greeks without Thermopylae, including those Edition: current; Page: [ 21 ] that dwell as far as the vale of Tempe.

For it looks silly to affirm that Apollo, for having killed the Dragon, was forced to fly to the farthest parts of Greece to be cleansed and purified; and that he there made certain offerings and libations, as men do when they design the appeasing those vindictive spirits whom we call Alastores and Palamnaei, which is to say, the revengers of such crimes as cannot be forgotten but must have punishment. It is true, indeed, that the relation which I have heard touching this flight is very strange and wonderful; but if there be any truth in it, we must not suppose it was an ordinary and common matter which happened then about this oracle.

Yet lest I should be thought, as Empedocles says,. I entreat you to let me put a fit conclusion to my discourse for now the time requires it , and to say what several have said before me, that when the Daemons who are appointed for the government and superintendency of oracles do fail, the oracles must of necessity fail too; and when they depart elsewhere, the divining powers must likewise cease in those places; but when they return again, after a long Edition: current; Page: [ 22 ] time, the places will begin again to speak, like musical instruments handled by those that know how to use them.

Cleombrotus having said thus much, Heracleon took up the discourse, saying: We have never an infidel among us, but are all agreed in our opinions touching the Gods; yet let us have a care, Philippus, lest in the heat and multiplicity of our words we unawares broach some false doctrine that may tend to impiety. But, as for your part, you are not sensible how you contradict even that which you allow; for granting, as you do, that there be Daemons, but not allowing them to be vicious and mortal, you cannot prove there are any at all.

For wherein do they differ from Gods, supposing they be incorruptible and impassible and not liable to error? Whilst Heracleon was musing, and studying how to answer this, Cleombrotus went on, saying: It is not only Empedocles who affirms there are bad Daemons, but even Plato, Xenocrates, and Chrysippus; yea, and Democritus, Edition: current; Page: [ 23 ] when he prayed he might meet with good spirits, which shows that he thought there were bad as well as good Daemons. And as to their mortality, I have heard it reported from a person that was neither fool nor knave, being Epitherses, the father of Aemilianus the orator, whom some of you have heard declaim.

This Epitherses was my townsman and a school-master, who told me that, designing a voyage to Italy, he embarked himself on a vessel well laden both with goods and passengers. About the evening the vessel was becalmed about the Isles Echinades, whereupon their ship drove with the tide till it was carried near the Isles of Paxi; when immediately a voice was heard by most of the passengers who were then awake, and taking a cup after supper calling unto one Thamus, and that with so loud a voice as made all the company amazed; which Thamus was a mariner of Egypt, whose name was scarcely known in the ship.

He returned no answer to the first calls; but at the third he replied, Here! I am the man. Then the voice said aloud to him, When you are arrived at Palodes, take care to make it known that the great God Pan is dead. Epitherses told us, this voice did much astonish all that heard it, and caused much arguing whether this voice was to be obeyed or slighted. Thamus, for his part, was resolved, if the wind permitted, to sail by the place without saying a word; but if the wind ceased and there ensued a calm, to speak and cry out as loud as he was able what he was enjoined.

Being come to Palodes, there was no wind stirring, and the sea was as smooth as glass. Whereupon Thamus standing on the deck, with his face towards the land, uttered with a loud voice his message, saying, The great Pan is dead. He had no sooner said this, but they heard a dreadful noise, not only of one, but of several, who, to their thinking, groaned and lamented with a kind of astonishment. And there being many persons in the ship, an account of this Edition: current; Page: [ 24 ] was soon spread over Rome, which made Tiberius the Emperor send for Thamus; and he seemed to give such heed to what he told him, that he earnestly enquired who this Pan was; and the learned men about him gave in their judgments, that it was the son of Mercury by Penelope.

There were some then in the company who declared they had heard old Aemilianus say as much. Not long after he was arrived there, he said, the air and the weather were very foul and tempestuous, and there followed a terrible storm of wind and thunder; which at length ceasing, he says, the inhabitants told him that one of the Daemons or Demi-gods was deceased. For as a lamp, said he, while it is lighted, offends nobody with its scent, but when it is extinguished, it sends out such a scent as is nauseous to everybody; so these great souls, whilst they shine, are mild and gracious, without being troublesome to anybody; but when they draw to an end, they cause great storms and tempests, and not seldom infect the air with contagious distempers.

They say farther, that Saturn is detained prisoner in one of those islands, and guarded by Briareus, being in a sound sleep for that is the device to hold him captive , and that he has several of those Daemons for his valets and attendants. Thus then spake Cleombrotus: I could, says he, relate several such stories as these; but it is sufficient that what has been said as yet does not contradict the opinion of any one here.

And we all know, the Stoics believe the same as we do concerning the Daemons, and that amongst Edition: current; Page: [ 25 ] the great company of Gods which are commonly believed, there is but one who is eternal and immortal; all the rest, having been born in time, shall end by death. Whereas we, on the contrary, assert that their Infinity is fabulous and ridiculous, seeing among such endless numbers of worlds there is not one governed by reason or divine providence, they having been all made and upheld by chance.

If we cannot forbear drolling even in matters of philosophy, they are most to be ridiculed who bring into their disputes of natural questions certain blind, dumb, and lifeless images, which appear they know not where nor when, which, they say, proceed from bodies, some of which are still living, and others long since dead and rotten. Here Ammonius began to speak, saying: In my opinion, Theophrastus was in the right, and spoke like a philosopher and a divine; for whoever shall deny what he alleges must also reject many things which may happen, though we understand not the reasons why they do so.

And granting what he offers to be true, it carries with it many things called impossible and unreal. But as to what I have heard the Epicureans allege against the Daemons which Empedocles brings in, — as, that it is impossible they can be happy and long-lived if they be bad and viciously affected, because vice in its own nature is blind and naturally precipitates itself into such mischiefs as destroy life, — that, I must tell you, is vain and idle.

For if this Edition: current; Page: [ 26 ] reasoning be good, it will then follow that Epicurus was a worse man than Gorgias the sophister, and Metrodorus than Alexis the comic actor; for Alexis lived twice as long as Metrodorus, and Gorgias a third longer than Epicurus. For it is in another regard we say virtue is strong and vice weak, not in reference to the continuance or dissolution of the body; for we know there are many animals which are dull, slow, and heavy, and many disorderly and lustful, which live longer than those that are more sagacious and quicker of sense.

And therefore they are much in the wrong in saying the divine nature is immortal because it avoideth the things which are ill and mischievous; for they should have supposed the divine nature free from all possibility of falling into corruption and alteration. But perhaps it will be thought not fair to dispute against those that are absent; I would have therefore Cleombrotus to resume his discourse touching the vanishing and transmigration of Daemons from one place to another. With all my heart, answered Cleombrotus; but I shall now say something which will seem more absurd than any thing I have heretofore offered, although it seems to be grounded on natural reason; and Plato himself has touched upon it, not positively affirming it, but offering it as a probable opinion, although among other philosophers it has been much cried out against.

And seeing that we are fallen into a free discourse, and that a man cannot light into better company and a more favorable auditory to test the story, as if it were foreign coin, I shall therefore tell you a story which I heard from a stranger, whose acquaintance has cost me no small sum of money in searching after him in divers countries, whom at length, after much travel, I found near the Red Sea. He would converse with men but once a year, all the rest of his time as he told me he spent among the Nymphs, Nomades, and Daemons.

He was very free with me, and extremely obliging. I never Edition: current; Page: [ 27 ] saw a more graceful person in all my life; and that which was very strange in him was, that he was never subject to any disease; once every month he ate the bitter fruit of a certain medicinal herb. He spake several languages perfectly well; his discourse to me was in the Doric dialect; his speech was as charming as the sweetest music, and as soon as ever he opened his mouth to speak, there issued out of it so sweet and fragrant a breath, that all the place was filled with it.

Now, as to human learning, such as history, he retained the knowledge thereof all the year; but as to the gift of divination, he was inspired therewith only one day in the year, in which he went down to the sea-side, and there foretold things to come. And thither resorted to him the princes and great men of all the country, or else their secretaries, who there attended his coming at a prefixed day, and then returned.

This person attributed divination to the Daemons, and was well pleased to hear what we related concerning Delphi. Whatsoever we told concerning Bacchus and the sacrifices which are offered to him, he knew it all, saying that, as these were great accidents which happened to Daemons, so also was that which was related of the serpent Python. And he affirmed, that he who slew him was not banished for nine years, neither did he fly into the Valley of Tempe, but was driven out of this world into another, from whence, after nine revolutions of the great years, being returned, cleansed, and purified, and become a true Phoebus, — that is to say, clear and bright, — he had at length recovered the superintendence of the Delphic oracle, which in the mean time had been committed to the charge of Themis He said as much concerning what is related of Typhon and the Titans.

For he affirmed, they were the battles of Daemons against Daemons, and the flights and banishments of those that had been vanquished, or the punishments inflicted by the Gods on those who had committed such Edition: current; Page: [ 28 ] acts as Typhon is said to have done against Osiris, and Saturn against Uranus, whose honors are much obscured, or wholly lost, by being translated into another world. For I know that the Solymeans, who are borderers to the Lycians, did greatly honor Saturn; but since he killed their princes, Arsalus, Dryus, and Trosobius, he fled into some other country, they knew not where, and he now is in a manner forgotten.

But they called these three — Arsalus, Dryus, and Trosobius — the severe Gods, and the Lycians do at this day curse people in their names, as well in private as in public. Several other such like examples may a man find in the records of the Gods. And if we call any of the Daemons by the usual and common names of the Gods, on whom they do depend, it is no marvel at all, said the stranger; for they like to be called by the Gods on whom they do depend, and from whom they have received their honor and power; even as amongst us men one is named Diius, another Athenae, another Apollonius, another Dionysius, and still another Hermaeus.

And there are some who have names imposed on them, as it were, by chance, which yet do well agree with their tempers; whereas some carry the names of the Gods which do not at all suit with their weaknesses. Here Cleombrotus having paused, his discourse seemed strange to all the company, and Heracleon demanded of him, how all this concerned Plato, and how he had given occasion to this discourse.

Unto which Cleombrotus answered: You do well to put me in mind of it; for first, Plato ever rejected the infinity of worlds, yet would determine nothing positively touching the precise number of them. And granting the probability of their opinion who affirmed there were five, one for each element, as to his own part, he kept to one, which seems to be his genuine opinion; whereas all other philosophers have been afraid to receive and admit the multitude of worlds, as if Edition: current; Page: [ 29 ] those who did not limit matter to one must needs fall into troublesome and boundless infinity.

But was this stranger, said I, of the same opinion with Plato, touching the number of the worlds? Or did you not all the while ask his opinion in that matter? I was far from failing herein, says Cleombrotus, seeing I found him so communicative and affable to me. He told me, that neither was the number of the worlds infinite, neither was there but only one, nor five; but a hundred and eighty-three, which were ranged in a triangular form, every side containing sixty worlds; and of the three remaining, every corner had one. That they were so ordered, that one always touched another in a circle, like those who dance in a ring.

That the plain within the triangle is, as it were, the foundation and common altar to all those worlds, which is called the Plain of Truth, in which lie the designs, moulds, ideas, and invariable examples of all things which were, or ever shall be; and about these is Eternity, whence flowed Time, as from a river, into these worlds. Moreover, that the souls of men, if they have lived well in this world, do see these ideas once in ten thousand years; and that the most holy mystical ceremonies which are performed here are no more than a dream of this sacred vision.

And further, that all the pains which are taken in the study of philosophy are to attain to a sight of those beauties; otherwise they were all lost labors. I heard him, said he, relate all these things as perfectly, as if they had been some religious rites wherein he would have instructed me; for he brought me no proof or demonstration to confirm what he said. Here, turning myself to Demetrius, I asked him what were the words which the wooers of Penelope spake in Homer, when they saw Ulysses handling his bow.

And Demetrius having put me in mind of them, I said: It came into my thoughts to say as much of this wonderful Edition: current; Page: [ 30 ] man. For this number of worlds shows us that he was neither an Indian nor an Egyptian; but his father was a Dorian Greek of the country of Sicily, named Petron, born in the city of Himera, who wrote a little book on this subject, which I indeed never saw, nor can tell whether it be extant. But Hippys, a native of Rhegium, mentioned by Phanias the Eresian, tells us, it was the doctrine of Petron that there were a hundred and eighty-three worlds, tacked to one another in their first principle; but he does not explain to us what this phrase means, nor does he offer any reason to prove this.

It is certain, says Demetrius, that Plato himself, bringing no argument to evince this point, does hereby overthrow this opinion. Yet, says Heracleon, we have heard you grammarians say that Homer was the first author of this opinion, as having divided the universe into five worlds, heaven, water, air, earth, and that which he calls Olympus; of which he leaveth two to be common, — the earth to all beneath, and Olympus to all above, — but the three in the midst between them he attributes unto three several Gods.

In the like manner Plato, assigning unto the principal parts of the universe the first forms and most excellent figures of the bodies, calls them five worlds, — those of the earth, water, air, and fire, and finally, of that which comprehended all the others, which he calls Dodecaedron which is to say, with twelve bases , which, amply extending, is of easy motion and capacity, its form and figure being very fit and proper for the revolutions and motions of the souls. What need is there then, cried Demetrius, of bringing in good old Homer?

For we have had fables enough already. But Plato is far from calling the different elements five worlds; for even where Edition: current; Page: [ 31 ] he disputes against those who assert an infinite number of worlds, he affirms, there is only one created of God and satisfying him, consisting of the entire corporeal Nature, perfect, endued with self-sufficiency, and wanting nothing; and therefore we may well think it strange that the truth which he spake should occasion the extravagancy of others. Not so, replied Demetrius; yet we must take cognizance of this, which does, as it were, hold out its hand to us, though we shall not remain long upon it, but treat of it by the way, and soon return to our first discourse.

First of all then, I say, the reasons which hinder us from asserting an infinite number of worlds do not hinder us from affirming that there are more than one; for as well in many worlds as in one there may be Providence and Divination, while Fortune intervenes only in the smallest things; but most part of the grand and principal things have and take their beginnings and changes by order, which could not be in an infinite number of worlds.

And it is more conformable to reason to say that God made more than one world; for, being perfectly good, he wants no virtue, and least of all justice and friendship, for they do chiefly become the nature of the Gods. Now God hath nothing that is superfluous and useless; and therefore there must be other inferior Gods proceeding from him, and other worlds made by him, towards whom he must use these social virtues; for he cannot exercise those virtues of justice and benignity on himself or any part of Edition: current; Page: [ 32 ] himself, but on others.

So that it is not likely this world should float and wander about, without either friend, neighbor, or any sort of communication, in an infinite vacuum. For we see Nature includes all single things in genera and species, like as in vessels or in husks of seeds; for there is nothing to be found in Nature — and nothing can have a common notion or appellation — which is not qualified both in common and in particular.

Now the world is not said to be such in common, but in particular, for its quality is derived from its being an harmonious whole made up of different parts. But yet, there being no such thing in Nature as one man alone, one horse, one star, one God, one Daemon, why may we not believe that there is not in Nature one only world and no more, but several? And if any one shall object against me that this world hath likewise but one earth and one sea, I can answer him, he is much deceived by not understanding the evidence afforded by like parts.


For we divide the earth into similar parts of the same denomination; for all the parts of the earth are earth, and so of the sea; but no part of the world is still the world, it being composed of divers and different natures. For as to the inconvenience which some do seem to fear, and in respect of which they confine all the matter within one world, lest, there remaining any thing without, it should disturb the composition of this, by the resistances and jars which it would make against it, — they have no need to dread this.

For, there being many worlds, and each of them in particular having one definite and determinate measure and limit of its substance and matter, no part thereof will be without order and good disposition, nothing will remain superfluous or be cast out as an excrement. For the reason which belongeth to each world, being able to rule and govern the matter that is allotted thereto, will not suffer that any thing shall run out of Edition: current; Page: [ 33 ] course and order, and rencounter and jumble another world, nor likewise that any thing from another shall justle or disturb it, there being nothing in Nature infinite and inordinate in quantity, nor in motion without reason and order.

And if perhaps there be any influence that passes from the one to the other, this is a fraternal communication, whereby they mix themselves together, like the light of the stars and the influence of their temperatures, and whereby they themselves do rejoice in beholding one another with a benign aspect, and give to the Gods who are good and many in number in every world an opportunity of knowing and caressing one another. For there is nothing in all this that is impossible, or fabulous, or contrary to reason; though some may think so because of the opinion of Aristotle, who saith that all bodies have their proper and natural places, by which means the earth must on all sides tend to the midst, and the water must rest upon it, serving by its weight for a foundation to the other lighter elements.

Were there then many worlds, the earth would be often found above the airy and fiery regions, and as often under them; while air and water would be sometimes in their natural places, and sometimes in others which are their unnatural; which things being impossible, as he thinks, it follows then, there are neither two nor more worlds, but one only, which is this here, consisting of all kinds of elements, disposed according to Nature, agreeably to the diversity of bodies.

But in all this there is more probability than truth. For consider, friend Demetrius; when he saith that some bodies tend towards the midst, which is to say, downwards, the others from the midst, that is, upward, and a third sort move round about the midst, what does he mean by the midst? This cannot be understood in respect of a vacuum, there being no such thing in Nature, as he says himself; and, moreover, those that do allow it say that it can have Edition: current; Page: [ 34 ] no middle, no more than beginning and end; for beginning and end are extremities, but that which is infinite, everybody knows, is without an end.

But supposing we should be necessitated to admit a middle in a vacuum, it is impossible to comprehend and imagine the difference in the motions of bodies towards it, because there is neither in this vacuum any power attractive of the body, nor in the bodies any inclination or affection to tend on all sides to this middle. And it is no less difficult to imagine that bodies can move of themselves towards an incorporeal place, or receive any motion from it. This middle then must be understood not locally, but corporeally. For this world being a mass and union consisting of different bodies joined together, this diversity of them must beget different motions from one another; which appears in that each of these bodies changing its substance does at the same time change its place.

For subtilization and rarefaction dissipate the matter which springeth from the midst and ariseth upwards; whereas, on the contrary, condensation and constipation depress and drive it down towards the middle. On these points it is not necessary to discourse any longer in this place. For whatever cause a man supposes shall produce such passions and changes, that very cause will contain each of these worlds in itself; because each of them has its sea and land, each its proper middle, and each its passions and change of bodies, and the nature and power which contain and preserve each in its place and being.

For that which is without, whether it be nothing at all or an infinite vacuum, cannot allow any middle, as we have already said. But there being several worlds, each has its proper middle apart; so that in each of them there will be motions proper to bodies, some tending down to the midst, others mounting aloft from the midst, others moving round about it, according as they Edition: current; Page: [ 35 ] themselves do distinguish motions.

And he who asserts there are many middles, and that heavy bodies from all sides do tend unto one alone, is like to him who shall affirm that the blood of several men runs from all parts into one vein, or that all their brains should be contained within one and the same membrane; supposing it absurd, that all natural bodies which are solid should not be in one place, and the rare in another.

He that thus thinketh is certainly a mean philosopher; and no better is he who will not allow the whole to have all parts in their order, rank, and natural situation. What could be more foolish, than for a man to call that a world which had a moon within it so situated, as if a man should have his brains in his heels, and his heart in his forehead? Whereas there is no absurdity or inconveniency, if, in supposing several distinct worlds separated from one another, a man should distinguish and separate their parts.

For in each of them the earth, sea, and sky will be placed and situated in their proper places, and each of these worlds may have its superior, inferior, circular, and middle part, not in respect of another world, nor in reference to what is without, but to what is within itself.

And as to the argument which some do draw from a stone supposed to be placed without the world, it neither proves rest nor motion; for how could it remain suspended, seeing it is by nature heavy, or move towards the midst of the world, as other ponderous bodies, seeing it is neither part of it nor like it?

And as to that earth which is fixed and environed by another world, we must not wonder, considering its weightiness, if it does not drop down, seeing it is upheld by a certain natural force pertaining to it. For if we shall take high and low not within the world but without, we shall find ourselves involved in the same difficulties as Epicurus was when he made his little indivisible atoms to move and tend to those places Edition: current; Page: [ 36 ] which are under foot, as if the vacuum had feet, or its infinite space would permit one to talk of high or low.

Indeed, a man would marvel what should cause Chrysippus to say, that the world was placed and situated directly in the midst, and that the matter thereof, from all eternity having possessed itself of the midst, yet is so compacted together that it remains for ever. As to the other oppositions which the Stoics make, who should fear them? As when they demand, how it is possible to maintain a fatal destiny and a divine providence, and how it can be otherwise but that we must admit of several Jupiters, when we assert the plurality of worlds.

Now if there be an inconveniency in admitting many Jupiters, their opinions will appear far more absurd; for they imagine there are suns, and moons, Apollos, Dianas, and Neptunes innumerable, in innumerable changes and revolutions of worlds. But where is the necessity which lies upon us to grant that there must be many Jupiters if there be many worlds, seeing that each of them may be subject to a sovereign governor of the whole, a God endued with a suitable mind and ability, like to him whom we name the Lord and Father of all things?

Or what shall hinder us from asserting that the several worlds must be subject to the providence and destiny of Jupiter, and that he has an eye to all things, directing all, and administering to them the principles, seeds, and causes of all things which are made? For, while we often see here a body composed of several other distinct bodies, — for example, Edition: current; Page: [ 37 ] the assembly of a town, an army, or a chorus, — in each of which bodies there is life, prudence, and understanding; so it cannot be impossible that, in the whole universe, ten or fifty or a hundred worlds which may be in it should all use the same reason, and all correspond with the same principle.

For this order and disposition is very suitable to the Gods; for we must not make them kings of a swarm of bees who never stir out of their hives, or keep them fast imprisoned in matter, like those who affirm the Gods to be certain dispositions of the air, and powers of waters and fire, infused and mixed within, which arise and spring up together with the world, and in time are to be burnt and end with it, — not affording them the liberty of coachmen and pilots, but nailing them down to their bases like statues and images.

For they enclose the Gods within matter, and that in so strict a manner as makes them liable to all the changes, alterations, and decays of it. It is certainly more agreeable to the nature of the Gods to say that they are wholly at liberty, like Castor and Pollux, ready to succor such as are overtaken by bad weather at sea; for when they appear, the winds cease and the waves are calmed.

Not that they navigate and are partakers of the same peril; but they only appear in the sky, and the danger is over. Thus do the Gods visit each world, and rule and provide for all things in them. Jupiter in Homer cast not his eyes far from the city of Troy into Thrace, and to the nomad Scythians along the river Ister; but the true Jupiter has several seemly and agreeable passages for his majesty from one world into another, not looking into the infinite vacuum without, nor regarding himself and nothing else, as some have imagined, but weighing the deeds of Gods and men, and the motions and revolutions of the stars.

For the Divinity does not hate variety and changes, but takes great pleasure in them, as one may conjecture by the circuits, conversions, and mutations Edition: current; Page: [ 38 ] observable in the heavens. And therefore I conclude that the infinite number of worlds is a chimera, which has not the least probability of truth, and which cannot by any means admit of any God, but must be wholly guided by chance and fortune. Whereas the government and providence of a certain definite number of worlds has nothing in it that seems more laborious and unworthy than that which is employed in the direction of one alone, which is transformed, renewed, and reformed an infinite number of times.

Having said this, I paused. And Philippus immediately cried out: Whether this be certain or not, I will not be too positive; but if we carry God beyond one world, it would more gratify me to know why we should make him the Creator only of five worlds and no more, and what proportion this number bears to that of the worlds, than to know why the word E I was inscribed upon this temple.

For this is neither a triangular, a quadrate, a perfect, nor a cubic number, neither does it yield any elegancy to such as are delighted in this kind of sciences. As to what concerns the argument drawn from the number of elements, which Plato seems to have touched upon, it is obscure and improbable, and will not afford this consequence, — that, as there are formed from matter five sorts of regular bodies, which have equal angles and equal sides, and are environed with equal superficies, so there were from the beginning five worlds, made and formed of these five bodies.

Yet they have not all the same constitution and origin; for the least Edition: current; Page: [ 39 ] and slightest of the five is the pyramid; the greatest, which has most parts, is the dodecahedron; and of the other two, the icosahedron is greater than the octahedron by more than twofold, if you compare their number of triangles. And therefore it is impossible they should be all made at once, of one and the same matter; for the smallest and most subtile have been certainly more pliable to the hand of the workman who moved and fashioned the matter, and consequently were sooner made and shaped, than those which have stronger parts and a greater mass of bodies, and whose composition was more laborious and difficult, like the dodecahedron.

Whence it follows that the pyramid was the first body, and not one of the others, which were by nature last produced. Now the way also to avoid this absurdity is to separate and divide matter into five worlds; here the pyramid for she is the first and most simple , there the octahedron, and there the icosahedron; and out of that which exists first in every one of these the rest draw their original by the concretion of parts, by which every thing is changed into every thing, as Plato himself shows us by examples throughout.

But it will suffice us briefly to learn thus much. Air is engendered by the extinction of fire, and the same being subtilized and rarefied produceth fire. Now by the seeds of these two we may find out the passions and transmutations of all. The seminary or beginning of fire is the pyramid, consisting of twenty-four first triangles; and the octahedron is the seminary of the air, consisting of forty-eight triangles of the same kind. So that the one element of air stands upon two of fire, joined together and condensed. And again, one body or element of air is divided into two of fire, which again, becoming thick and hard, is changed into water; so that, throughout, that which comes first into light gives easily birth unto the rest by transmutation.

And so it comes to pass, that there is not merely one first principle Edition: current; Page: [ 40 ] of all things; but one thing is so mixed with the origin of another, in the several changes and alterations of nature by motion, that the same name and denomination belong equally to all. But here Ammonius interrupted him, and said: Notwithstanding that those things are so peremptorily and so pompously asserted by Theodorus, yet I shall wonder if he be not forced to make use of such suppositions as are destructive of themselves and one of another.

For he will have it, that the five worlds he speaks of were not composed all at one time, but that that which was subtilest, and which gave least trouble in the making, came out first into being. And as if it were a consequent, and not a repugnant thing, he supposes that the matter does not always drive out into existence that which is most subtile and simple, but that sometimes the thickest, grossest, and heaviest parts do anticipate the more subtile in generation.

But besides this, supposing that there be five primitive bodies or elements, and consequently that there be as many worlds, there are but four of those orders which he discourses rationally concerning. For as to the cube, he takes it away and removes it, as it were in a game of counters; for it is naturally unfit either to turn into any thing besides itself, or to yield that any of those other bodies be converted into it, inasmuch as the triangles of which they consist be not of the same sort.

For all the rest consist in common of demi-triangles or halves of equilateral triangles ; but the proper subject of which the cube is particularly composed is the right isosceles triangle, which admits no inclination to a demi-triangle, nor can possibly be united and incorporated with it. If there be then five bodies, and consequently five worlds, and in each of these worlds the principle of generation be that body which is first produced, it must happen that, where the cube is the first in generation, none of the rest can possibly be produced, it being Edition: current; Page: [ 41 ] contrary to its nature to change into any of them.

Not to insist here, that Theodorus and those of his mind make the element or principle of which the dodecahedron is composed to be different from the rest, it not being that triangle which is termed scalene, with three unequal sides, out of which the pyramid, octahedron, and icosahedron, according to Plato, are produced; so that said Ammonius laughing you must solve these objections, or offer something new concerning the matter in debate. And I answered him, that, for my part, I knew not at present how to say any thing which carried more probability.

Therefore I say that, there being supposed from the beginning of things two several natures contrary to each other, — the one sensible, mutable, subject to generation, corruption, and change every way, the other spiritual and intelligible, and abiding always in the same state, — it would be very strange, my friends, to say that the spiritual nature admitteth of division and hath diversity and difference in it, and to be angry if a man will not allow the passible and corporeal nature to be wholly united in itself, without dividing it into many parts.

For it is most suitable to the permanent and divine natures to be tied and linked to each other, and to avoid, as much as is possible, all division and separation; and yet, amongst incorporeal natures the power of diversity works greater differences in regard to essential forms and reason, than those of distance of place in the corporeal world. And therefore Plato, refuting those who hold this proposition, that all is one, asserts these five grounds and principles of all, — entity, identity, diversity, motion, and rest; which five immaterial principles being admitted, it is no marvel if Nature have made every one of Edition: current; Page: [ 42 ] these to be an imitation, though not exact, yet as perfect and agreeable as could be drawn, of a correspondent principle in the corporeal mystery, partaking, as much as can be, of its power and virtue.

For it is very plain that the cube is most proper and agreeable to repose and rest, by reason of the stability and firmness of those plain surfaces of which it consists. And as to the pyramid, everybody soon sees and acknowledges the nature of fire in it, by the slenderness of its decreasing sides, and the sharpness of its angles; and the nature of the dodecahedron, apt to comprehend all the other figures, may seem more properly to be the corporeal image of Ens, or Being in the general, indifferent to this or that particular form or shape.

And of the other two which remain, the icosahedron resembleth the principle of diversity, and the octahedron principally partakes of the identical nature. And thus from one of these the air is produced, which partakes of and borders upon every substance, under one and the same outward form and appearance; and the other has afforded us the element of water, which by mixture may put on the greatest diversity of qualities.

Therefore if Nature requires a certain uniformity and harmony in all things, it must be then that there are neither more nor fewer worlds in the corporeal nature than there are patterns or samples in the incorporeal, to the end that each pattern or sample in the invisible nature may have its own primary position and power, answering to a secondary or derivative in the different constitution or composition of bodies. And this may serve for an answer to those that wonder at our dividing Nature, subject to generation and alteration, into so many kinds.

But I entreat you all further, attentively to consider with yourselves that, of the two first and supreme principles of all things, — that is to say, the unity, and the indefinite binary or duality, — this latter, being the element and chief origin of all deformity and disorder, Edition: current; Page: [ 43 ] is termed infinity, and on the contrary, the nature of unity, determining and limiting the void infinity, which has no proportion nor termination, reduces it into form, and renders it in some manner capable of receiving a denomination which belongs only to sensible and particular things.

Now these two general principles appear first in number; for the multitude is indeed no number, unless a certain form of the matter resulting out of indeterminate infinity is cut off, and bounded within respective limits, either shorter or longer. For then each multitude is made number, when once it is determined and limited by unity; whereas, if we take away unity, then the indeterminate duality brings all into confusion, and renders it without harmony, without number or measure.

Now, the form not being the destruction of matter, but rather the order and the beauty of it, both these principles therefore must be within number, from whence ariseth the chief disparity and greatest difference. For the infinite and indeterminate principle is the cause of the even number; and the other better principle, which is the unity, is the father as it were of the odd number.

So that the first even number is two, and the first odd number is three; of which is composed five by conjunction, which is by its composition common to both, but of power or nature not even but odd. For, since sensible and corporeal nature is divided into several parts, on account of its inborn necessity of diversity, it was necessary that the number of these parts should not be either the first even number, nor yet the first uneven or odd, but a third, consisting of both; to the end that it might be procreated out of both principles, viz.

These two principles being then joined together, the better one being mightier prevails over the indeterminate Edition: current; Page: [ 44 ] infinity or duality, which divideth the corporeal nature; and thus the matter being divided, the unity interposing itself between has hindered the universe from being divided and parted into two equal portions.

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  • But there has been a multitude of worlds caused by the diversity and disagreement of the infinite Nature; but this multitude was brought into an odd number by the virtue and power of identity, or the finite principle; and it was therefore odd, because the better principle would not suffer Nature to stretch itself further than was fitting. For if there had been nothing but pure and simple unity, the matter would have known no separation; but being mixed with the dividing nature of duality, it has by this means suffered separation and division; yet it has stopped here, by the odd numbers being the superior and master to the even.

    For all the other numbers being afterwards multiplied by others, they produce numbers different from themselves; whereas five, being multiplied by an even number, produceth a perfect ten, and multiplied by an odd number, representeth itself again; not to insist that it is composed of the two first tetragons or quadrate numbers unity and four , and that, being the first number whose square is equivalent to the two squares before it, it composeth the fairest of right angled triangles, and is the first number which containeth the sesquilateral proportion.

    Perhaps all these reasons are not very pertinent to the discourse of the present dispute, it being better to allege that in this number there is a natural virtue of dividing, and that nature divideth many things by this number. For in ourselves she has placed five senses, and five parts of the soul, the vital, the sensitive, the concupiscible, Edition: current; Page: [ 45 ] the irascible, and the rational; and as many fingers on each hand; and the most fruitful seed disperseth itself but into five, for we read nowhere of a woman that brought forth more than five at a birth.

    And the Egyptians also tell us that the Goddess Rhea was delivered of five Gods, giving us to understand in covert terms that of the same matter were procreated five worlds. And in the universe, the earth is divided into five zones, the heaven into five circles, — two arctics, two tropics, and one equinoctial in the midst. There are five revolutions of planets or wandering stars, inasmuch as the Sun, Venus, and Mercury make but one and the same revolution. But it will perhaps be demanded, why Plato refers the number of worlds to the five regular bodies or figures, saying that God made use of the number five in the fabric of the world, as it were transcribing and copying this; and then, having proposed a doubt and question of the number of the worlds, whether there be five, or one only, thereby clearly shows that his conjecture is grounded on this conceit of the five regular bodies.

    If now we may make a probable conjecture as to his opinion, we may believe that of necessity, with the diversity of these figures and bodies, there must presently ensue a difference and diversity of motions; as he himself teacheth, affirming that whatever is subtilized or condensed does, at the same time Edition: current; Page: [ 46 ] with its alteration of substance, alter and change its place. For if from the air there is engendered fire, when the octahedron is dissolved and vanished into pyramids, or, on the contrary, if the air be produced from the fire pressed and squeezed up into the form of the octahedron, it is not possible it should remain there where it was before, but it flies and runs to another place, forcing and combating whatever stands in the way to oppose it.

    And he shows this more clearly and evidently by an example and similitude of fans, and such like things as drive away the chaff from the corn; for thus the elements driving the matter, and being driven by it, do always bring like to like, some taking up this place, others that, before the world was digested as now it is. The matter then being in that condition in which it is likely every thing is where God is not present, the five first qualities, or first bodies, having each their proper and peculiar inclinations and motions, went apart, not wholly and altogether, nor throughly divided and separated one from another; for when all was huddled in confusion, such as were surmounted went continually against their nature with the mightier.

    And therefore, some going on one side and others going on the other, hence it has happened that there have been as many portions and distinctions as there are divers kinds of first bodies; one of fire, not wholly pure, but inclining towards the form of fire; another of an ethereal nature, yet not wholly so, but inclining thereto; another of earth, not simple and mere earth, but inclining to the form of earth.