As the engines became more powerful and designs outgrew the bicycle origins, the number of motorcycle producers increased. Many of the nineteenth century inventors who worked on early motorcycles often moved on to other inventions. Daimler and Roper, for example, both went on to develop automobiles. At the end of the 19th century the first major mass-production firms were set up. In , Triumph Motorcycles in England began producing motorbikes, and by it was producing over bikes. By the outbreak of World War I, the largest motorcycle manufacturer in the world was Indian,   producing over 20, bikes per year.
During the First World War, motorbike production was greatly ramped up for the war effort to supply effective communications with front line troops. Messengers on horses were replaced with despatch riders on motorcycles carrying messages, performing reconnaissance and acting as a military police. The British company Triumph Motorcycles sold more than 30, of its Triumph Type H model to allied forces during the war.
History of Motorcycles- Development of Motorcycling
It was also the first Triumph without pedals. The Model H in particular, is regarded by many as having been the first "modern motorcycle". It was so popular with its users that it was nicknamed the "Trusty Triumph". By , Harley-Davidson was the largest manufacturer,  with their motorcycles being sold by dealers in 67 countries. In the s, streamlining began to play an increasing part in the development of racing motorcycles and the "dustbin fairing" held out the possibility of radical changes to motorcycle design.
NSU and Moto Guzzi were in the vanguard of this development, both producing very radical designs well ahead of their time. Moto Guzzi produced competitive race machines, and until the end of had a succession of victories. From the s through the s, small two-stroke motorcycles were popular worldwide, partly as a result of East German MZs Walter Kaaden's engine work in the s.
In the 21st century, the motorcycle industry is mainly dominated by the Indian motorcycle industry and by Japanese motorcycle companies. A Japanese example is the Honda Super Cub , which went on to become the biggest selling vehicle of all time, with its 60 millionth unit produced in April Its Splendor model has sold more than 8.
Motorcycle construction is the engineering, manufacturing, and assembly of components and systems for a motorcycle which results in the performance, cost, and aesthetics desired by the designer. With some exceptions, construction of modern mass-produced motorcycles has standardised on a steel or aluminium frame , telescopic forks holding the front wheel, and disc brakes. Some other body parts, designed for either aesthetic or performance reasons may be added. A petrol powered engine typically consisting of between one and four cylinders and less commonly, up to eight cylinders coupled to a manual five- or six-speed sequential transmission drives the swingarm -mounted rear wheel by a chain, driveshaft , or belt.
Repair can be done using a Motorcycle lift.
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Motorcycle fuel economy varies greatly with engine displacement and riding style. Under conditions of fuel scarcity like s Britain and modern developing nations, motorcycles claim large shares of the vehicle market. Very high fuel economy equivalents are often derived by electric motorcycles.
Electric motorcycles are nearly silent, zero-emission electric motor-driven vehicles. Operating range and top speed are limited by battery technology. A survey of 4, readers of the US Consumer Reports magazine collected reliability data on 4, motorcycles purchased new from to Different types of motorcycles have different dynamics and these play a role in how a motorcycle performs in given conditions.
For example, one with a longer wheelbase provides the feeling of more stability by responding less to disturbances. Motorcycles must be leaned in order to make turns. This lean is induced by the method known as countersteering , in which the rider momentarily steers the handlebars in the direction opposite of the desired turn.
With such short wheelbase , motorcycles can generate enough torque at the rear wheel, and enough stopping force at the front wheel, to lift the opposite wheel off the road. These actions, if performed on purpose, are known as wheelies and stoppies or endos respectively. Various features and accessories may be attached to a motorcycle either as OEM factory-fitted or aftermarket. Such accessories are selected by the owner to enhance the motorcycle's appearance, safety, performance, or comfort, and may include anything from mobile electronics to sidecars and trailers.
Motorcycles have a higher rate of fatal accidents than automobiles or trucks and buses. For motorcycles this figure is higher at The most common configuration of motorcycle accidents in the United States is when a motorist pulls out or turns in front of a motorcyclist, violating their right-of-way. The United Kingdom has several organisations dedicated to improving motorcycle safety by providing advanced rider training beyond what is necessary to pass the basic motorcycle licence test.
Along with increased personal safety, riders with these advanced qualifications may benefit from reduced insurance costs . In South Africa, the Think Bike campaign is dedicated to increasing both motorcycle safety and the awareness of motorcycles on the country's roads.
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It has dozens of trained marshals available for various events such as cycle races and is deeply involved in numerous other projects such as the annual Motorcycle Toy Run. Motorcycle safety education is offered throughout the United States by organisations ranging from state agencies to non-profit organisations to corporations. In Ireland , since ,  in the UK and some Australian jurisdictions, such as Victoria , New South Wales ,  the Australian Capital Territory ,  Tasmania  and the Northern Territory ,  it is compulsory to complete a basic rider training course before being issued a Learners Licence, after which they can ride on public roads.
In Canada, motorcycle rider training is compulsory in Quebec and Manitoba only, but all provinces and territories have graduated licence programs which place restrictions on new drivers until they have gained experience. Eligibility for a full motorcycle licence or endorsement for completing a Motorcycle Safety course varies by province. The motorcyclist's riding position depends on rider body-geometry anthropometry combined with the geometry of the motorcycle itself.
These factors create a set of three basic postures. Factors of a motorcycle's ergonomic geometry that determine the seating posture include the height, angle and location of footpegs, seat and handlebars. Factors in a rider's physical geometry that contribute to seating posture include torso, arm, thigh and leg length, and overall rider height.
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A motorcycle is broadly defined by law in most countries for the purposes of registration, taxation and rider licensing as a powered two-wheel motor vehicle. Many jurisdictions include some forms of three-wheeled cars as motorcycles. Motorcycles and scooters' low fuel consumption has attracted interest in the United States from environmentalists and those affected by increased fuel prices.
However, a motorcycle's exhaust emissions may contain 10—20 times more oxides of nitrogen NOx , carbon monoxide , and unburned hydrocarbons than exhaust from a similar-year passenger car or SUV. United States Environmental Protection Agency certification result reports for all vehicles versus on highway motorcycles which also includes scooters ,  the average certified emissions level for 12, vehicles tested was 0. European emission standards for motorcycles are similar to those for cars. Motorcycle emission controls are being updated and it has been proposed to update to Euro IV in and Euro V in From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Two- or three-wheeled motor vehicle. For other uses, see Motorcycle disambiguation. Main article: Types of motorcycles. Main article: History of the motorcycle. The Japanese motorcycle industry had truly begun, although there was as yet no unified highway code in Japan, and inter-urban roads were terrible. Urban roads were worse, as Japanese cities were intentionally built in a crazy-quilt pattern during their Feudal period, to slow the advance of invading troops.
A lack of road signs and even street names, combined with the horrific state of road repair, made the advance of motorization difficult. Japan had never relied on horse and carts for general movement of goods in their Feudal period, and almost all traffic was by foot. The publicity drew the attention of the Ohayashi group of companies, which whom Shimazu founded Japan Motors Manufacturing. Around 30, spectators attended, a record for any kind of race in Japan. Just like the United States after WW2, it was the need for military mobility which sped up infrastructure improvement for Japanese roads.
An increasingly belligerent Japanese military annexing Taiwan in , and parts of China and Korea by used motorized vehicles in greater numbers than the rest of the country. The Road Improvement Plan of estimated a year project of completely paving Japanese roads, and building bridges over rivers, and the motorcycle as a pleasurable touring machine for wealthy riders became a reality.
Tokyo was rebuilt with a more rational road system, which doubled the number of vehicles in a single year , and led to a push country-wide for a modernized road system.
Harley-Davidson followed suit in In JAC built about 30 examples of cc flat-twin, used for Imperial escort duty. Miyata alone produced nearly 30, motorcycles between , and as mentioned, Rikuo built some 18, heavyweight H-D clones between Photos scanned from here are listed as Iwatate.
Extremely informative. Photos listed at Sucher. GuitarSlinger said… Brilliant Paul. Chas said… As an ex-HD factory test engineer I loved your article. Thanks so much for the wonderful story on the Japanese motorcycle scene. I do hope you will continue this wonderful story and provide us an ongoing account that includes the early days of the Honda motorcycle. Paul, you never cease to amaze. As a guy that dreams of owning a vintage bike someday, you continually demonstrate how much there is to learn.
Still watching and trying to learn. Great in depth article Paul. Fascinating subject. Staying In. TV reviews. Music news. GO London. Great Days Out. ES Best. ES Shop. Travel Offers. Voucher Codes. Property news. Area guides. Click to follow ES Lifestyle. The wacky world of motorcycles. A gymkhana and motor cycle sports event at Crystal Palace, south London. American film director Mack Sennett's slapstick policemen the Keystone Kops in action again in the film Keystone Hotel.
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History of the motorcycle
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